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Vocabulary 4 Threats and potential threats to the environment

You probably already know a lot of words for talking about the environment, pollution, and so on. In this unit we look at words that are often used together (collocations). Try to learn some of these expressions and use them in your writing.

Shrinking habitats (places where animals live and breed which are decreasing in size) are a threat to both plants and animals, and endangered species (types of animals/plants which are in danger of no longer existing) need legal protection if they are to survive. Meanwhile, global warming (steady rise in average world temperatures) will produce rising sea levels and climatic changes (changes in the weather/climate), and carbon dioxide emissions (carbon dioxide gas from factories, cars, etc.) from the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, etc.) are contributing to the greenhouse effect (warming of the Earth's surface caused by pollution). In addition, population growth exerts severe pressure on (formal: puts pressure on) finite resources (limited resources), and the ecological balance (balance of natural relationships in the environment) may be upset by uncontrolled deforestation (destruction/clearing of forests). Demographic projections (forecasts about the population) suggest the world population will grow before it begins to stabilise. One of the worst case scenarios (the worst possibilities for the future) is that there will be no tropical forests left by the year 2050.

/Adapted from English Vocabulary in Use. Advanced. Michael McCarthy, Felicity O’Dell/

1. Paraphrase the following sentences using words and phrases from the vocabulary above instead of the underlined words. Make any other necessary changes to produce a correct sentence.

1 All that carbon-what's-it-called gas put out by cars and factories is a major problem.

2 These flowers here are a type there's not many left of, so it's illegal to pick them.

3 A lot of wild animals have to survive in smaller and smaller areas where they can live.

4 We have to look after the things we use on this planet because they won't last forever.

5 If the cutting down of trees continues, there will be no forest left ten years from now.

6 Burning coal and oil and stuff like that causes a lot of pollution.

7 The sea will get higher if this heating up of the world continues.

8 Increasing population puts really big pressure on economic resources. 9 The way things all balance one another in nature is very delicate.

/Adapted from English Vocabulary in Use. Advanced. Michael McCarthy, Felicity O’Dell/

2. Complete the following table, using a dictionary if necessary. Do not fill the shaded boxes.

noun

verb

adjective

adverb

climate

demography

project

threat

emission

/Adapted from English Vocabulary in Use. Advanced. Michael McCarthy, Felicity O’Dell/

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