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2. Make three sentences about the other results of the tornado, using result in, result from and as a result of.

3. Rewrite the following sentences using the expressions in brackets.

1. In New York in 1988 the temperature stayed above 32°C for 32 days, and the murder rate soared by 75 per cent.

A heatwave in New York ... (result in)

2. When the Fohn wind blows in Geneva, traffic accidents rise by 50 per cent.

There is ... (as a result of)

3. During the severe winter of 1962-63, economic activity in the UK dropped by about seven per cent.

(result from)

4. It has been estimated that by 2030, sea levels will rise 18cm with global warming.

(cause)

5. Following recent coastal flooding, insurance companies may increase premiums for homes and businesses.

(lead to)

6. Floods worldwide cost about $16 billion a year in damage.

(result from)

7. By 2030, warmer winters could melt the snow at many ski resorts around the world.

(cause)

8. Changes in atmospheric pressure can make swollen joints more painful for arthritis sufferers.

(as a result of)

/from “Focus on IELTS”, Sue O’Connell/

4. Linking words and phrases

Read the following text and look at the example sentences.

1) because, as, since: show the reason or cause of something, They come before a clause:

link word clause

We stayed at home because/as/since it was raining

  • Because emphasises the reason more strongly; as and since assume that the reason is obvious:

I’ll do it because I want to, not because you asked me to.

As/since everyone is here, we can begin. (=It is obvious)

  • We use only because when we answer with a clause on its own:

Why are you late?’ ‘Because I missed the bus.’

2) because of, owing to, due to, on account of, etc: show the reason or cause of something but they come before a noun (phrase), not a clause:

link word noun (phrase)

We stayed at home because of/owing to/due to/on account of/ as a result of/thanks to the rain.

  • Because of is much more often used than the others.

  • Owing to - more formal than because of (note: Owing to cannot come after the verb be):

Owing to the lack of money, the project will not continue next year.

  • Due to - often comes after the verb be (note: Owing to cannot come after the verb be):

The accident was due to human error.

The accident was owing to human error.

  • On account of - often means ‘because of a problem or difficulty’:

He can’t run very fast on account of his asthma.

  • As a result of – often means ‘because of something that has already happened’:

As a result of the pilot’s strike, all flights have had to be cancelled.

  • We use thanks to to say that something, usually good, has happened:

Thanks to Ron and his car, we’ve managed to get all the deliveries done on time.

3) in order to, so as to are used before a verb which expresses the purpose of an action.

She went on a diet in order to lose weight.

She went on a diet so as to lose weight.

She went on a diet in order not to be fat.

She went on a diet not to be fat. (note: we cannot use not to on its own)

4) in order that and so (that) are used before a clause expressing purpose. The clause contains a modal verb.

link words clause with modal verb

We’re leaving now so/so that/in order that we can arrive early.

5) consequently, as a result, because of that express the result of an action mentioned earlier. When we use them at the beginning of a sentence, they are followed by a comma:

We talked until the early hours of the morning. Consequently/As a result/ Because of that, I overslept.

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