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5. Open cloze

Fill in each gap with only one word.

Climate Change

It is now widely recognized that global warming over the past 50 years is due 1. ___________ human activities that have 2. ___________ greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The most recent assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concludes that the global average surface temperature 3. ___________ by about 0.6°C during the 20th century.

The seemingly small rise in temperature is already showing 4. ___________ effects. One of the consequences has been a 5. ___________ in the global average sea level. Another effect has been more frequent droughts in recent decades in parts of Asia and Africa.

The world’s 6. ___________ of greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, continue to increase. 7. ___________, global surface temperature is expected to increase by 1.4 to 5.8 degrees Celsius from 1990 to 2100.

Scientists predict that this level of warming could increase the frequency of natural 8.___________, from flooding, to droughts, to torrential rains, ice-storms, tornadoes and hurricanes; it can also 9. ___________ sea levels to rise by between nine and 80 centimetres by 2100, owing to the 10. ___________ of polar icecaps and other glaciers, which in turn may 11.___________ flooding in many low-lying areas and small island states.

/Adapted from http://www.unep.org/ceh/chapter04.pdf/

6. Answer the questions using the vocabulary of the unit.

1. Are forests managed in a sustainable way in the area where you live? What measures are taken to prevent deforestation?

2. What recyclable products do you use?

3. How do you think businesses could be encouraged to invest into green products?

4. What are the prospects renewable sources of energy in your country?

Grammar Spot Future forms

1. Future continuous and Future Perfect

These are the predicted changes in the atmosphere and climate that will be happening or will have happened over the next century based on the current state of knowledge. Put each prediction into either the Future Continuous or Future Perfect.

    1. global non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions / grow 13 billion metric tons / by 2020

    2. average surface temperature of the Earth / increase by 1.1-6.4° / by the end of the 21st century

    3. tropical storms and hurricanes / become more intense / by the end of the 21st century

    4. global average sea level / rise by 18-59 cm / by 2100

    5. climate change / have a significant impact on Australia’s wool industry / by 2029

    6. more than 660m people / suffer the damage of climate change / by 2030

    7. fewer people / die from freezing temperatures / by 2100

2. Complete the sentences with the future perfect or future continuous form of the verb in brackets.

a. By the end of this month, we _____________ (move) to our new house so you can come and stay after that.

b. This time tomorrow my parents _____________ (fly) over the Atlantic on their way to New York!

c. It's been raining all day, but hopefully it _____________ (stop) by tomorrow. We were planning to have a picnic.

d. Hopefully you _____________ (read) the book I lent you by the next time we see each other.

e. If the match starts at 7.00 p.m., we _____________ (play) until 8.45 at least.

f. I can't meet you for lunch tomorrow because I think I _____________ (work). I have so much to do I'll just have a sandwich at my desk.

g. In a year's time, they _____________ (build) the new road and we'll be able to get to work much quicker.

h. If everything goes according to plan, we _____________ (spend) Christmas in Australia this year.

/New English File. Upper-intermediate. Workbook. Clive Oxenden, Christina Latham-Koenig with Jane Hudson/

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