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5. Underline the correct link word or phrase.

  1. I phoned because/since I need to speak to you.

  2. Since/ Becausethe rain has stopped, we can go back in the garden.

  3. Because of/ Because the bus was late, I missed the meeting.

  4. We took a taxi in order not to/not to be late.

  5. The traffic jam is due to/owing to major roadworks.

  6. Emma came first on account of/as a result of all her hard work.

  7. I’m going by bus in order to/owing to save costs.

  8. I’ll reply by e-mail so that/consequently he can buy the ticket today.

  9. She didn’t water the plants, since/so they died.

  10. We’ll join the euro because/because of that our economy will improve.

6. Fill in each space in these sentences with a suitable link word or phrase. More than one answer may be possible.

  1. Sandra’s upset and it’s all ……………… to your behaviour.

  2. Prices have risen ……………… of an increase in demand.

  3. The 15.30 train to Sheffield has been cancelled ……………… to circumstances beyond our control.

  4. ……………… understand how the human body works, you need some knowledge of chemistry.

  5. ……………… there was no food in the house we rang for pizza.

  6. The vase was put on top of the cupboard ……………… it would not get broken.

  7. I was scared when I went home ……………… the street was so dark.

  8. ……………… milk is so good for you, why don’t you drink more of it?

  9. I didn’t go ……………… I didn’t want to leave you alone.

  10. She started to use e-mail ……………… that she could send messages more quickly.

  11. I caught the plane in order that I could get there on time but in the end it took longer as a ……………… of delays.

  12. The bank refused to give the company another loan. ………………, it went bankrupt.

/from “Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate”, Luke Prodromou/

7. Answer the questions using different ways of expressing cause and result.

1. What are the effects of air pollution?

2. What sources of water pollution are there?

3. How does acid rain affect different ecosystems?

4. What causes soil pollution?

5. Why is there a hole in the ozone layer nowadays?

6. Why do some scientists say that the seriousness of global warming is overestimated nowadays?

Vocabulary 3 Sustainable development

A Climate change

Scientists point to the dangers of climate change, in particular global warming. This is the rise in temperatures in the atmosphere and the sea caused by emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal. Some say that the earth cannot sustain (support) much further industrialization.

The Kyoto protocol of 1997 was designed to put the United Nations climate change convention into effect. This originally aimed to cut emissions to five per cent below 1990 levels by 2010. Some businesses complain that these targets will increase their costs.

B Sustainability

Sustainability is the idea that the economy should be organized in ways that can be continued without causing irreversible damage (that cannot be changed back to what it was before) to the environment or depletion of natural resources. Businesses should be run not for short-term profit, but in a way that takes account of the long-term interests of society and the environment.

Developing countries are trying to reach the living standards of the industrialized world. Some warn that, in addition to the dangers of global warming, the world's natural resources are not sufficient for this.

Others argue that renewable, non-polluting energy sources such as wind power will allow further economic growth without causing damage to the environment. Some argue that nuclear energy still has a role to play.

These are some of the issues surrounding sustainable development in the global economy.

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