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5. Fill in the gaps with the word from the list below.

rainforests emissions (x2) logging (x2) greenhouse non-renewable endangered (x2) habitat emitted

Environmental problems include the well-being of threatened or 1. _________ animals. For example, in the United States, 2. _________ of forest land was destroying the 3. _________ of the Northern Spotted Owl, a threatened species. Consequently, after a lengthy lawsuit, 4._________ was limited in those areas. In Central and South America, the 5. _________ are also destroyed to make room for farming. However, some unique and 6. _________ species of plants and animals are also destroyed in the process.

Global warming is another environmental problem. 7. _________ gases, such as carbon, are 8._________ into the atmosphere and are destroying the ozone layer, causing the earth to reach higher temperatures. Taking steps, such as reducing carbon 9. _________, can lessen this problem – according to some scientists. Using electric or hydrogen powered vehicles, solar power and wind power can also work to greatly reduce carbon 10. _________, as well as reduce dependence on 11. _________ resources and foreign oil.


6. Paraphrase the underlined phrases using the vocabulary of the unit. Poisoned Environment in Nigeria

Industrial plants allow poisonous liquids and materials to flow into rivers, make the air dirty by sending poisonous gases into the atmosphere, and get rid of waste threatening to poison underground water. Life expectancy in Nigeria has dropped from 65 to 48 years. Gas from oil production puts Nigeria ahead of all other countries in global damage to the air, water and land. Population growth that damages the environment is to blame for the fact that a lot of resources have been used up and brings about food insecurity that forces farmers to rely on chemical fertilizers. Bush-burning, uncontrolled grazing and felling of trees have led to massive removal of forests. Fishing methods that include the use of dynamite and pesticides have resulted in fishing that has reduced fish stocks in the country and harmed the environment.

/Adapted from http://www.overpopulation.org/archives1998.html /

Vocabulary 2 Expressing cause and result

1. Cause, result in, lead to; result from, as a result of

Read the following text and look at the example sentences.

The most violent tornado in recorded history struck in 1925, killing 689 people, injuring 1980 others, destroying four towns, severely damaging six others and leaving 11,000 people homeless across Missouri, Indiana and Illinois.

Cause Result

  • The tornado caused/resulted in the deaths of 689 people.

  • The damage led to people losing their homes.

Result Cause

  • 689 people were killed as a result of the tornado.

  • 689 deaths resulted from the tornado.

Grammar notes

  • Look at these two ways of using the verb cause: to cause a problem (+ object); to cause a problem to occur (+ object + to + verb)

  • result from, result in and lead to are phrasal verbs, which are followed by an object or an object + -ing.

The swelling resulted from an insect bite.

The illness led to him resigning.

Lead tois used with results which happened after some time.

  • as a result of is used as a preposition before a noun or noun phrase: As a result of the drought, the harvest failed.

The harvest failed as a result of the drought.

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