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3. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place below

garbage

landfills sustainable

harmful

pollutants

dispose

released

harm

incinerators

generate

toxic

Waste Disposal

The ways that communities (1)­­­___________ of their waste products can cause problems for their communities or the environment. (2)____________ by-products pollute the environment and eventually (3) ___________ the people who live there. However, there exists (4) ­­­___________ disposal which does not put these toxins into the air, water or soil of communities.  

Some people live in remote places or where (5) ___________ collection doesn’t happen.  They burn their garbage in an open fire in their back yard.  However, this can be a problem because one of the main chemicals (6) ___________ when garbage is burned is carbon monoxide.  Carbon monoxide is very (7) ___________ to animal life. There are large (8) ___________ that burn waste, reducing its amount up to 90%.  They use special equipment to remove the (9) ___________.  Some plants even use the energy produced to (10)___________ electricity.

(11) ___________ were used for a long time when there was less population.  However, many of them are now full and other means need to be found to manage the garbage that is produced. 

/Adapted from http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/01346/environment.html/

4. Multiple-choice cloze

For questions 1-15, read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits the space.

Sustainability

As an environmental concept, sustainability has been around since the 1700s, when European forestry began to face a crisis 1. ___________ logging. Foresters 2. ___________ that timber needed to be managed with more care, and that trees would need to be replanted after significant “harvests”. Cooperative effort was undertaken to 3. ___________ the forests of Europe, in Germany especially, and the concept of sustainability, was born. Timber harvesters understood that if they 4. ___________ their current practices, the forest would disappear, so they changed them to make them sustainable.

Sustainability 5. ___________ biodiversity, the preservation of 6. ___________ ecosystems, the health of the environment, and a high quality of life.

In the twentieth century, many scientists began to realize that in order to survive as a species, humans needed to be aware 7. ___________ their environment. 8. ___________, it was understood that the world is a huge closed ecosystem, and that damage 9. ___________ one part of the Earth can have an impact 10. ___________ other parts of the Earth. 11. ___________, the human race needs to work together to encourage sustainability and minimize its influence on the globe if it wants to continue existing. Sustainability is important from the neighborhood to the international level, and every citizen on Earth can 12. ___________ to the global effort to live more sustainable, healthy lives.

/Adapted from http://www.wisegeek.com/in-environmental-terms-what-does-sustainability-mean.htm/

(1) A as a resultB due toC becauseD owing

(2) A realizedB comprehendedC estimatedDperceived

(3) AremakeBrelaunch CrecreateDrestore

(4) Acarried onBpersistedCwent onDcontinued with

(5) A respects Bendangers CpromotesDincreases

(6) A remarkableBuniqueCspecialDunusual

(7) Aabout B of Cin D with

(8) AfurthermoreBhoweverCconsequentlyD so

(9) Aof B to Cin Don

(10) Aof Bto Cin Don

(11) Aas a resultBmoreoverCon the contraryDowing that

(12) Aaid BassistChelpDcontribute

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