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HISTORY OF SEAFARING - нет словаря и ключей.doc
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XI. Insert the proper words, see the words below

  1. The advance of Russian … into Siberia began after the famous campaign of Yermak (1581 - 1584).

  2. They covered a … of 7,000 km.

  3. They … Northern Asia to Russia, making it the biggest country in the world.

  4. In 1636, a company of 50 Cossacks … by Ataman Dmitry Kopylov set out for the Lena territory.

  5. Cossacks set out to collect yassak (… tax) from the natives.

  6. Kopylov decided to wait for … from Tomsk.

  7. The inhabitants of Aiven told the Cossacks that beyond the Djugdjur … lay the Lama, as they called the Okhotsk Sea.

  8. Kopylov … Ivan Moskvitin to explore the new sea and the lands around it.

  9. They sailed for seven weeks up its … Maya.

  10. The journey was extremely …

  11. Cossacks built several …, surrounding them with a fence and a moat.

  12. That was the first Russian … on the Pacific coast.

  13. In their reports to the governors the Cossacks scarcely mentioned the … they had suffered.

  14. In the Lama and the rivers there are … in plenty.

  15. Such were the difficulties the Russians had to … when making their way to the Pacific Ocean.

  1. annexed

  2. difficult

  3. distance

  4. explorers

  5. fish

  6. government

  7. hardships

  8. headed

  9. huts

  10. overcome

  11. ordered

  12. range

  13. reinforcement

  14. settlement

  15. tributary

XII. Say in one word, see the words below

  1. people who came to some place in order to discover what is there and describe it

  2. the way, road measured in miles, kilometers, etc

  3. small village consisting of several houses

  4. small river which flows into another bigger river

  5. group of people arriving to help

  6. people who live in a definite area

  7. government tax paid by furs

  8. some mountains situated nearby

  9. very small poor house to live in

  10. official story telling about the work done

  11. to have difficulties and fight with them

  1. distance

  2. explorers

  3. hut

  4. inhabitants

  5. overcome

  6. range

  7. reinforcement

  8. report

  9. settlement

  10. tributary

  11. yassak

XIII. Give English equivalents

русские исследователи, продвижение в Сибирь, покрыли расстояние, присоединили северную Азию, под руководством Копылова, отправились собирать, правительственный налог, к востоку, ждать подкрепление, после прибытия, жители Айвена, за горной цепью, приказал разузнать, плыли семь недель, им понадобилось ещё шесть недель, достигнуть водораздела, чрезвычайно трудный, тащить на буксире лодки, пересекать горные цепи, в устье рели, построить несколько изб, окружить забором, первое поселение на побережье, едва упоминали, пережить трудности, приходилось есть корни, рыба в изобилии, преодолевать трудности

XIV. Tell your classmates about how Russian explorers reached the Pacific Ocean

Unit II

The Azov campaigns of Peter the Great and the founding of

The Russian Navy,

1695 – 1699

At the end of the 17th century, Russia was badly in need of way out to the high seas. But the Crimean Tatars and the Turks kept raiding the southern parts of the country, and Russia was unable to establish normal economic relations with other countries. Therefore, she had no alternative but to start a war with countries, which were hindering her economical development.

Peter I launched two campaigns against the Turkish fortress of Azov which, situated at the mouth of the river Don, blocked passage to the Azov Sea. The first campaign took place in 1695, the second, in 1699.

Peter I formed an army consisting of 31,000 men, 144 mortars, 12 howitzers and arquebus guns. A unit of cavalry under a command of B.P. Sheremetyev was sent to the mouth of the river Dnieper to distract the attention of the Turks and Tatars from the forthcoming attack on Azov.

In the spring of 1695, the Russian army set out for Azov. On the way to Azov the army was joined by Don Cossacks. By the 5th of July the whole army had been con­centrated in the Azov area. Peter I decided to take the fortress by assault. On the 5th of August, the fortress was stormed for the first time, but the assault was repulsed. One of the main reasons of the failure was the fact that Russia, having no navy, could not prevent the Turks from getting regular supplies by sea.

The first failure did not discourage Peter I. On the contrary, he started preparing for a new campaign with still greater energy. This time he decided to conduct operation not only on land, but on sea too, so as to isolate the Turkish fortress from the sea. Therefore no time was to be lost in building a fleet. Soon work began at the Voronezh shipyards, which were specially built for this purpose.

In the spring of 1699 the fleet was ready. It consisted of 2 warships, 4 fire-ships, 23 galleys and many transports.

At the same time Peter I gave much attention to the army, which was then 75,000 strong. The combined forces were led by Peter I himself.

At the end of March 1699, the Azov army was concentrated near Voronezh. In April, eight regiments, together with the Tsar's Guards, sailed for Azov on board naval trans­ports. The rest of army went by land, and in May the galley fleet set out. The first squadron was under command of Peter I.

On the 27th of May, the Russian fleet entered the sea, destroyed the Turkish navy and blocked Azov from the sea, while the army stormed fortress by land. The combined ac­tion of the army and the navy led to the seizure of Azov on the 18th of July, 1699.

The victory at Azov strengthened Russia’s position on the Azov sea. Soon a port named Taganrog was founded on its coast.

In August 1699, for the first time in the history of Russia, a 46-gun warship, the Krepost, entered the Black Sea and sailed to Constantinople on a diplomatic mission.

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