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HISTORY OF SEAFARING - нет словаря и ключей.doc
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Unit V Mikhail Lomonosov,

1711 – 1765

The name of Mikhail Vasilyevieh Lomonosov, the great Russian scientist and poet, is known to everyone in Russia. The range of his scientific activities was remarkably wide and varied.

Russian seamanship owes much to Lomonosov. He carried out the very important work of making a full atlas of the Russian Empire. It was published only 27 years after his death.

The great scientist realized the necessity of exploring the Arctic Ocean and establishing a regular sea route along the coasts of Siberia. He proposed sending out a special polar expedition for this purpose. After his death Admiral Chichagov tried to put Lomonosov’s ideas into practice.

Y. М. Shokalsky, a well-known Soviet specialist in oceanography, points out that Lomonosov’s works contain many important data on the change of tides, the depen­dence of the concentration of salt in sea water on the vicinity of the coast and ice, etc.

Under his supervision various marine instruments, such as spyglasses, barometers, thermometers and so on, were made. Lomonosov invented an observation post of special construction convenient for watching the sea in stormy weather.

His research work Discussions on Greater Precision in Seafaring lay in the archives of the Academy of Sciences for more than 150 years. In this work he proposed making different instruments and devices for seafaring which foreign inventors thought of only many years later. One of these devices was a self-recording compass. Now this ap­paratus invented by Lomonosov is called a course recorder. Lomonosov also invented a mechanical log connected with the hull of the ship, by means of which the navigator could easily calculate the distance covered by the ship without leaving the wheel-house or having the sailors heave the log.

Lomonosov insisted on establishing a Seafaring Academy for research work in all fields connected with seamanship.

Exercises

I. Repeat the words after the teacher

scientist, scientific, activities, empire, realized, oceanography, instrument, convenient, precision, archive, academy, mechanical, wheel-house, heave

II. Read and translate the international words

poet, atlas, regular, special, polar, expedition, idea, specialist, oceanography, concentration, instrument, barometer, thermometer, observation, post, construction, discussion, archive, academy, compass, course, mechanical, log, navigator, distance

III. Read and translate the information using the vocabulary

IV. Translate the verbs, give the three forms

know, owe, carry out, publish, realize, explore, establish, propose, send, point out, contain, change, invent, observe, watch, lie, think, call, connect, calculate, cover, leave, heave, insist

V. Give the derivatives of the words

science, act, sea, ocean, glass, observe, construct

VI. Give Russian equivalents

the range of activities, remarkably varied, owes much, carry out, realize the necessity, establish sea routes, along the coasts, for this purpose, put the ideas into practice, well-known, point out, the dependence of the concentration of salt on the vicinity of the coast and ice, under the supervision, marine instruments, observation post, convenient for watching sea, greater precision, lay in the archives, foreign inventors, self-recording, course recorder, log connected with the hull, by means of, easily calculate the distance, without leaving the wheel-house, heave the log, insisted on establishing, fields connected with seamanship

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