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VII. Arrange the following in pairs of synonyms

    1. annex a. area

    2. begin b. difficulties

    3. distance c. get to

    4. extremely d. inhabitants

    5. famous e. join

    6. find out f. known

    7. hardships g. lead

    8. head h. learn

    9. journey i. start

    10. natives j. start for

    11. period k. time

    12. reach l. very

    13. set out m. village

    14. settlement n. voyage

    15. territory o. way

VIII. Grammar revision

Translate the sentences into Russian

  1. They had to reach the Pacific Ocean.

  2. They had to proceed to the East.

  3. They had to explore the new lands.

  4. They had to tow the boats upstream.

  5. They had to cross mountains.

  6. They had to build huts in new settlements.

  7. They had to overcome great difficulties.

  8. They had to collect tax from the natives.

Translate the sentences into English

  1. Мы должны были начать урок в 9 часов.

  2. Я должен был приготовить рассказ об исследователях Дальнего Востока.

  3. Русским пришлось преодолевать большие трудности на пути к Тихому Океану.

  4. Казакам пришлось ждать подкрепление.

  5. Они были вынуждены есть траву и кору деревьев.

IX. Answer about the article

  1. When did the advance of Russian explorers into Siberia begin?

  2. What distance did they cover?

  3. What territories did they annex to Russia?

  4. Who headed a company of Cossacks in 1636?

  5. What did they have to do along the river Lena and its tributaries?

  6. What did the Cossacks learn about?

  7. Why did Kopylov decide to wait for reinforcement from Tomsk?

  8. Where did Kopylov and his company go after the arrival of the Tomsk Cossacks?

  9. What did the inhabitants of Aiven tell the Cossacks?

  10. What name did they call the Okhotsk Sea?

  11. Who set out with 31 of his men to explore the new sea and the lands?

  12. When did they reach the watershed?

  13. Why was the journey extremely difficult?

  14. By what river did they reach the Okhotsk Sea and the Pacific Ocean?

  15. What was the first Russian settlement on the Pacific coast?

  16. When was it built?

  17. Who first reached the Amur and when?

  18. What hardships did the explorers endure on their way to the Pacific Ocean?

X. Insert prepositions

  1. The advance of Russian explorers … Siberia began … the famous campaign of Yermak.

  2. … a period of 55 years they covered a distance … 7,000 km.

  3. They annexed Northern Asia … Russia.

  4. In 1636, a company of 50 Cossacks headed … Ataman Dmitry Kopylov set … … the Lena territory.

  5. The Cossacks set out to collect yassak … the natives living … the river Lena.

  6. Cossacks learned … the great lands and rivers lying … the mountains.

  7. Kopylov decided to wait … reinforcements … Tomsk.

  8. Kopylov ordered Ivan Moskvitin to explore the new sea and the lands … it and find … what the people living there were like.

  9. They sailed … seven weeks up its tributary Maya.

  10. … the winter of 1639, … the mouth of the river Ulya, the Cossacks built several huts.

  11. That was the first Russian settlement … the Pacific coast.

  12. Such were the difficulties the Russians had to overcome when making their way … the Pacific Ocean.

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