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HISTORY OF SEAFARING - нет словаря и ключей.doc
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XII. Say in one word, see the words below

  1. rain falling very rapidly and in great quantities

  2. order that something must not be done

  3. people who go to live in a new country usually with no or few previous inhabitants

  4. writing made on a monument, medal or book

  5. the country in which you were born

  6. a man who rules a country

  7. the state of being in a quiet place away from other people

  8. draw some geographical information on a map

  9. a place on a coast where ships may anchor

  10. situation in which life is difficult and unpleasant

  1. emperor

  2. forbid

  3. harbor

  4. hardships

  5. inscription

  6. motherland

  7. plot

  8. seclusion

  9. settlers

  10. torrential

XIII. Give English equivalents

с юга на север, стать на якорь, выгрузить груз, отремонтировать судно, в соответствии с распоряжениями, встретиться с трудностями, проливной дождь, местные власти, позволили войти в гавань, сойти на берег, спасательная шлюпка, избегать общения, единственные иностранцы, достигнуть соглашения, запретить приближаться, пунктирная линия, запасы еды, нанести на карту, прийти к заключению, соединённый с материком, вдающийся русский моряк, в конце осени, радостно приветствовать, потеряли друг друга, получить важные научные данные, в честь первого морского кругосветного путешествия, была выпущена медаль

XIV. Tell your classmates about the first voyage of Russian seamen round the world

Unit IX

The discovery of the Antarctic Continent

By f. F. Bellingshausen and m. P. Lazarev,

1819 – 1821

At the beginning of the 19th century, ships of the Russian navy made several cruises round the world. Great geographical discoveries were made especially in the Pacific Ocean. However, big regions of the northern and southern hemisphere still remained unexplored. No one knew whether there really was a continent in the Antarctic. The northern route between the Pacific and the Atlantic was yet to be established.

On the initiative of I. F. Krusenstern and G.A. Sarychev a new expedition was undertaken. Two ships, the Vostok and the Mirny, under the command of Faddei Faddeyevich Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev, made up the Southern Division of the expedition. They were to sail south in search of the Antarctic continent. Two more ships, the Otkrytiye and the Blagonamerenniye, called the Nothern Division, under the command of M. N. Vasilyev and G. S. Shishmaryov, sailed towards Alaska, the Bering Strait, and farther on to the Arctic Ocean. The task of the Northern Division was to pass through the Arctic Ocean into the Atlantic Ocean either at the coasts of Siberia or of North America. The four ships left Kronstadt on the same day, July 16, 1819.

Able and experienced seamen made up the crews of these ships. The Naval Ministry appointed Captain Bellingshausen head of the Southern Division.

In the port of Portsmouth Bellingshausen stopped for nearly a month to get supplies of provisions and the necessary equipment.

In early autumn they were sure that they had reached the Antarctic continent. This was confirmed by the appearance of numerous polar birds. The ships were actually only a few miles off the coast of the Antarctic continent. More than a hundred years later this place was named after Princess Martha, by the Norwegians. In 1948, the whaling flotilla Slava sighted the coast from the same point that Bellingshausen had reached. It was only because of bad visibility that Bellingshausen and his men could not get a clear view of the coast of the Antarctic continent and the mountain peaks of the inland.

In February 1820, the ships were already in the extreme south of the Indian Ocean, keeping as far south as the ice would permit. They tried to approach the continent at two points, but were compelled to sail back because of the ice.

So they sailed eastwards, forcing their way through the ice packs. Finally, the ships sailed to Australia, calling at Port Jackson, as Sidney was then called. All through the winter the ships sailed in the Torrid Zone of the Pacific Ocean, among the islands of Polynesia. In this area 15 new islands were discovered and given Russian names, and important geographical research work was carried out. After returning to Port Jackson, the ships sailed again in the direction of the southern continent.

On the 22nd of January, 1821, a black spot appeared on the horizon. It turned out to be an island, which they named after Peter I. Now Bellingshausen was sure that the continent was not far off. True enough, on January 29, 1821, the seamen at last saw the coast of Antarctica. It was named the Coast of Alexander I.

The ships now turned back, and on August 5th, 1821 the Vostok and the Mirny anchored at Kronstadt.

The expedition lasted 751 days, during which a distance of 92,000 km was covered. Besides the Antarctic continent, 29 islands and one coral reef were discovered, and very important geographical data obtained.

In commemoration of the great discoveries, two Soviet Antarctic research stations were given the names of Vostok and Mirny, after the two Russian ships that were the first to reach the Antarctic continent.

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