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HISTORY OF SEAFARING - нет словаря и ключей.doc
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XIII. Tell your classmates about the discovery of the Antarctic continent by Russian seafarers unit X Admiral Dmitry Senyavin,

1763 – 1831

Dmitry Nikolayevich Senyavin was born into a noble family in the village of Komlevo, Kaluga province. After graduating from a Naval Cadet Corps in 1780 he served in the Black Sea Fleet and helped construct the naval base in Sevastopol. After his resolute actions had prevented a flagship from capsizing during Varna expedition, Prince Potemkin entrusted him with a vital task of transporting diplomatic mail to the Russian embassy in Constantinopol.

During the Russian-Turkish War of 1787-1791 Senyavin distinguished himself in command of the battleships Navarchia and Voznesenye Gospodnye, but he had paid little attention to admiral Ushakov’s authority, which resulted in his confinement to a guardhouse and the threat of his reduction on rank. Potemkin effected reconciliation of the two great seafarers.

In 1798, commanding the flagship Svyatoi Pyotr, equipped with 72 guns, and three other warships, he seized a strongly fortified French fortress St. Maura.

In 1804, he was promoted to Rear Admiral. During another Mediterranean expedition in 1805-1807 he was in command of the Russian armed forces, now in the rank of vice-admiral. He reasserted Russian control of the Southern Adriatic. As a result of these operations, the French were prevented from taking hold of Ionian islands.

A new war with Turkeу had begun and Senyavin’s squadron was ordered to proceed to the Aegean Sea in order to attack Istanbul. Не reached the Dardanelles on February 24, 1807 and captured the island of Tenedos in March. Using the island as his place d’arme, Senyavin blockaded the Straits and cut оff supplies to the Sultan’s capital.

After food riots broke out, Sultan Mustafa IV ordered his fleet to break the blockade. The Ottoman ships clashed with Senyavin’s squadron in the battle of Dardanelles and the battle of Athos. Both engagements were Russian victories.

A large part of the Russian squadron (5 battleships, 4 frigates, 4 corvettes, 4 brigs) was ordered to return to Sevastopol. Senyavin was to lead the remaining fleet to the Baltic, where the Finnish War with Sweden was already brewing. Although he planned to proceed directly to Saint Petersburg, stormy weather induced him to enter Portugal and cast anchor in Lisbon. Within several days, the Royal Navy blockaded Lisbon, intercepting a Russian sloop as an enemy vessel: the Anglo-Russian war has been declared.

In this tricky situation, Senyavin distinguished himself as a skilled diplomat and managed to save his ships from destruction. Napoleon ordered Senyavin to take part in military operations against the Portuguese and Spaniards. To that Senyavin responded that he had not been authorized by the tsar to fight the peoples his country was not at war with and neither promises nor threats could make him change his mind.

In August the French were beaten by the Duke of Wellington and were compelled to leave Portugal. Russian 8 ships were left face to face with 25 British battleships, to say nothing about coastal artillery. They could have easily annihilated the Russian squadron if Senyavin refused to surrender. The Russian admiral, however, maintained his neutrality, threatening to blow up the ships and set Lisbon ablaze in case of attack. At last a convention was signed, whereby the Russian squadron was to be escorted by the Royal Navy to England. There the Russian fleet was detained in Portsmouth under various pretexts until winter made their return to the Baltic impossible. At long last, the nearly starved Russian fleet was allowed to leave Portsmouth for Riga.

Senyavin’s disobedience to the Emperors resulted in his not being employed at sea again. But, his name remained so popular in the Navy that Decembrist conspirators planned to make him member of the government after staging a palace revolution. After Alexander I’s death in 1825 Senyavin was recalled to the active service as Russia was preparing to resume hostilities against Turkey. The following year he was promoted Full Admiral and took part in the battle at Navarino ended in great victory. He was awarded the Order of Saint George.

Dmitry Senyavin died three years later and was interred in Alexander Nevsky Lavra. He had several ships named after him. The Senyavin islands in Oceania and the promontories in Alaska and Sakhalin still commemorate his name.

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