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Ex. 21. Write the summary of the text “Cancer”.

Ex. 22. Read the following text and discuss it with your fellow-students:

WARNING SIGNS AND CANCER RISK FACTORS

Breast Cancer

Warning signs: any lump or thickening in the breast or bleeding or discharge from the nipple.

Cancer risk factors: breast cancer most often occurs in women older than 50: in women who have never had children; had their first child after age 30, have never breastfed, and in women from families in which there is a history of breast cancer in mother or sister.

Colorectal Cancer

Warning signs: any rectal bleeding or long change in the bowel habits.

Cancer risk factors: history of colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer in a family member or chronic ulcerative colitis.

Lung Cancer

Warning signs: nagging cough, coughing up blood, persistent attacks of pneumonia or bronchitis, chest pain.

Cancer risk factors: heavy smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants.

Oral Cancer

Warning signs: any change of color in the mouth or sore in the mouth that fails to heal.

Cancer risk factors: most common in men older than 45, heavy smokers, and users of chewing tobacco, especially when coupled with heavy use of alcohol.

Prostate Cancer

Warning signs: difficulty in urination, persistent pain in the lower back, pelvis, or upper thighs, blood in the urine.

Cancer risk factors: most common among men older than 70.

Skin Cancer

Warning signs: a small lesion with irregular border and red, white, blue, or blue-black spots on the trunk or limbs, shiny, firm bump or lesions from pearl to black anywhere on the skin, dark lesions on palms, soles, tips of fingers and toes, large brownish spot with darker speckles on skin exposed to sun, red-purple spots anywhere on the skin, purple-brown or dark blue nodules on toes or leg, pearly or wax bump on face, ear, or neck, flat, flesh-colored or brown scar-like lesion on the chest or back, change in a mole or any sore that fails to heal.

Cancer risk factors: fair skin, blue eyes, or red hair, severe sunburn in childhood, family history of birthmarks or moles.

Urinary Tract and Bladder Cancer

Warning signs: blood in the urine, back pain, loss of weight and appetite, persistent fever, anemia.

Cancer risk factors: most common in men older 50, heavy smokers, and history of chronic urinary tract infections.

Ex. 23. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Рентген-терапія не призвела до сприятливих результатів при лікуванні раки шлунку. 2. Хворі зі|із| злоякісними пухлинами особливо схильні до різноманітних|усяких| ускладнень і захворювань. 3. Найнадійніше лікування пухлини – це її хірургічне видалення|віддалення|. 4. Пневмонія – найчастіше ускладнення у хворих на рак. 5. Така операція повинна запобігти проникненню ракових кліток|клітин| в мозок. 6. Виявивши пухлину, лікар|лікарка| зробив рентгенологічні і лабораторні досліджування.|

Ex. 24. Pronounce and memorize the meaning of the following terms:

Life-threatening [‘TretnIN] що загрожує життю; capable [‘keIpqbl] здатний (на); exhibit виявляти(ся); resemble [rI’zembl] походити, мати схожість; cessation [se’seIS(q)n] припинення; machinery [mq’SI:nqrI] механізм; induce викликати, стимулювати.

Ex. 25. Read and translate the following text:

TUMORS

Tumors are masses or growths, which arise from surrounding normal tissue. They may be either malignant (progressive and life-threatening) or benign (non-progressive and not life-threatening). Benign tumors display slow growth and are encapsulated. So that tumor cells cannot invade the surrounding tissue. Malignant tumor growth is invasive. It extends beyond the tissue of origin into adjacent organs. The major groups of malignant tumors are carcinomas, sarcomas, and mixed-tissue tumors.

A carcinoma is a malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue (glandular, skin, linings of internal organs). A sarcoma is a malignant tumor derived from connective tissue (blood, bone, muscle, fat, or cartilage). Mixed-tissue tumors are derived from tissue, which is capable of differentiating into epithelial as well as connective tissue.

Malignant neoplasms lack the normal growth control that is exhibited by most other adult tissues, and in many ways they resemble embryonic tissue. Rapid growth is one characteristic of embryonic tissue, but as the tissue begins to reach its adult size and function, it slows or stops growing completely. This cessation of growth is controlled at the individual cell level, cancer results when a cell or group of cells for some reasons breaks away from that control. This breaking loose involves the genetic machinery and can be induced by viruses, environmental toxins, and other causes. The illness associated with cancer usually occurs as the tumor invades and destroys the healthy surrounding tissue, eliminating its function. Malignant tumor can spread by local growth and expansion or by metastasis, which results from tumor cell’s separating from the main mass and being carried by the lymphatic or circulatory system to a new site where a second tumor is created.

There is no medicine to cure anybody from cancer. Scientists are trying to find the cure but they cannot find it. Very many sick people are waiting for this miraculous cure. It will help thousands of people that have cancer.

Ex. 26. Answer the following questions:

1. What is a tumor? 2. What types of tumors do you know? 3. What is the difference between benign and malignant tumors? 4. What groups of malignant tumors do you know? 5. What is a carcinoma? 6. What is sarcoma? 7. What does the malignant tumor lack? 8. How can malignant tumors spread?

Ex. 27. Match the term and its definition:

1. carcinoma

a. term meaning essentially harmless; not progressive or recurrent.

2. benign

b. cancerous tumor derived from epithelial tissues in the body.

3. malignant

c. abnormal growth of tissue. It may be malignant (cancerous) or benign (noncancerous).

4. neoplasm

d. new and abnormal growth.

5. sarcoma

e. term used to describe cancerous tumors that can grow uncontrollably and spread (metastasize).

6. tumor

f. cancerous tumor derived from connective tissue in the body.

Ex. 28. Read the following text, entitle it, and write new terms out. Retell the text:

Surgery has long been the foundation of cancer treatment. The goals of surgery can vary. It can be done to remove a cancerous growth from the body, or to learn if malignant cells have spread to other parts of the body. Surgery is most successful if the cancer has not spread.

Radiation therapy (X-ray therapy, radiotherapy, or irradiation) can be used to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy is either part of the treatment or the only treatment for about half of the patients. This form is effective only for the cancer cells within the area receiving the radiation. Radiation may be used before surgery to shrink a cancerous tumor, after surgery to stop growth of any remaining cancer cells, or alone or with anticancer drugs to destroy a malignant tumor. It is particularly effective when used to treat certain types of localized cancers such as malignant tumors of the lymph nodes or vocal cords. But radiology may produce troublesome side effects. They are swallowing difficulties, dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, hair loss, and loss of energy.

Chemotherapy is the use of medications to treat cancer. For some types of malignancy chemotherapy may produce a cure, in other cases (when the cancer is not curable), it can relieve symptoms and enhance the quality of life for a patient. Cancer chemotherapy does not always mean the use of only a single drug. Combination chemotherapy consists of giving a group of drugs that work together to kill cancer cells. Anticancer drugs can affect normal tissue cells as well. Depending on the specific drugs used, chemotherapy can produce various side effects similar to those of radiation therapy. These toxic reactions include hair loss, sores in the mouth, difficulty swallowing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, and infection. In general, these effects of chemotherapy and radiation are reversible.

Immunotherapy might involve the use of biological agents, known as lymphokines, that normally are produced by immunologically oriented cells. The best documented immunotherapeutic agents are interferon and interleukin-2.

Ex. 29. Having read the following text, compose short dialogues on it:

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