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Bronchitis

Just when you thought you were finally over a cold, your chest starts to feel sore and you develop a cough. Later, you might get the chill or a slight fever.

If these signs and symptoms sound familiar, you might have acute bronchitis, a condition that occurs when the inner walls that line the main air passageways of your lungs become infected and inflamed. Bronchitis often follows a respiratory infection such as a cold. Smoking and exposure to smoke are also risk factors for bronchitis.

Most cases of acute bronchitis disappear within a few days without lasting effects, although coughs may linger for weeks. If you have repeated bouts of bronchitis, see your doctor. You may have a more serious health problem – such as asthma or chronic bronchitis – that needs medical attention.

A cough that brings up yellowish-gray or green mucus (sputum) is one of the main signs of bronchitis. Mucus itself isn't abnormal – your airways normally produce up to several tablespoons of mucus secretions every day. But these secretions usually don't accumulate, because they're continuously cleared into your throat and swallowed with your saliva.

When the main air passageways in your lungs (bronchial tubes) are inflamed, they often produce large amounts of discolored mucus that comes up when you cough. If this persists for more than three months, it is referred to as chronic bronchitis. Mucus that isn't white or clear usually means there's a secondary infection.

Still, bronchitis symptoms can be deceptive. You don't always produce sputum when you have bronchitis, and children often swallow coughed-up material, so parents may not know there's a secondary infection. Many smokers have to clear their throat every morning when they get up. While they may think this is normal for everyone, it's not. If it continues for more than three months, it may be chronic bronchitis.

Acute bronchitis also may be accompanied by common signs and symptoms of an upper respiratory infection, including: soreness and a feeling of constriction or burning in your chest, sore throat, chest congestion, sinus fullness, breathlessness, wheezing, slight fever and chill, and overall malaise

Antibiotics don't effectively treat most cases of bronchitis because the condition usually results from a viral infection. Instead, the following are the cornerstones of acute bronchitis treatment: get plenty of rest, drink extra liquids, take a nonprescription cough medicine.

It's best not to suppress a cough that brings up mucus, however, because coughing helps remove irritants from your lungs and air passages. If your cough is keeping you awake at night, use just enough cough medicine so that you can rest, but not enough to suppress your cough completely. There are several kinds of over-the-counter (OTC) cough medicines. Read their labels to figure out which is most likely to relieve the type of cough you have. If your cough is preventing you from sleeping, your doctor may recommend a prescription cough suppressant.

Your doctor may prescribe an antibiotic if he or she suspects that you have a bacterial infection. If you have a chronic lung disorder or if you smoke, your doctor may also prescribe antibiotics to reduce your risk of a serious, secondary infection.

II. Speak on the following topics:

1. Nervous System.

2. Brain.

3. Eye.

4. Ear.

5. Skin.

6. Respiratory System.

7. Disorders of the Respiratory System.

8. Grippe.

UNIT 5

LESSON 55

URINARY SYSTEM

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