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Ііі. Модальні дієслова

Вправа 1. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. Mike can run very fast. 2. They can understand French. 3. Kate can speak English well. 4. My brother can come and help you in the garden. 5. Can you speak Spanish? 6. Can your brother help me with mathematics? 7. His little sister can walk already. 8. The children cannot carry this box: it is too heavy. 9. My friend cannot come in time. 10. This old woman cannot sleep at night. 11. His sister can cook very well. 12. I can sing, but I cannot dance.

Вправа 2. Перепишіть наступні речення, додаючи слова, дані в дужках. Замініть модальне дієслово can (could) виразом to be able to, де це необхідно. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. I can give you my book for a couple of days (after I have read it). 2. He can ski (for ten years). 3. We knew that she could swim (since a child). 4. You cannot take part in this serious sport competition (until you have mastered good skills). 5. I could not solve the problem (before he explained it to me). 6. They can (never) appreciate your kindness. 7. I was sure you could translate that article (after you had translated so many texts on Physics). 8. You can go to the country (when you have passed your last examination). 9. We can pass to the next exercise (when we have done this one).

Вправа 3. Перекладіть на українську мову.

1. May I go to the post-office with Mike? 2. May I take Pete's bag? 3. Don't give the vase to the child: he may break it. 4. May we take notes with a pencil? 5. You may not cross the street when the light is red. 6. May I shut the door? 7. May I invite Nick to our house? 8. You may go now. 9. If you have done your homework, you may go for a walk. 10. Don't go to the wood alone: you may lose your way. 11. It stopped raining, and mother told us that we might go out. 12. May children play with scissors?

Вправа 4. Вставити модальне дієслово may (might) чи вираз to be allowed to. Вставити to be allowed to тільки в тих випадках, де may (might) вжити не можна. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. ... I bring my sister to the party? 2. He asked if he ... bring his sister to the party. 3. After they had finished their homework, the children ... watch TV. 4. He ... join the sports section as soon as he is through with his medical examination. 5. Becky's mother said that everybody ... take part in the picnic. 6. He ... go home if he likes. 7. As soon as the boy ... leave the room, he smiled a happy smile and ran out to join his friends outside. 8. The doctor says I am much better. I ... get up for a few hours every day.

Вправа 5. Вставити модальні дієслова may чи can. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. I ... finish the work tomorrow if no one bothers me any more. 2. ... we come and see you next Sunday at three o'clock in the afternoon? 3. What time is it? – It ... be about six o'clock, but I am not sure. 4. Only a person who knows the language very well ... answer such a question. 5. ... I come in? 6. Let me look at your exercises. I ... be able to help you. 7. I ... not swim, because until this year the doctor did not allow me to be more than two minutes in the water. But this year he says I ... stay in for fifteen minutes if I like, so I am going to learn to swim. 8. Libraries are quite free, and any one who likes ... get books there. 9. I ... come and see you tomorrow if I have time. 10. Take your raincoat with you: it ... rain today. 11. Do you think you ... do that?

Вправа 6. Вставити модальні дієслова may чи can. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. You ... come in when you have taken off your boots. 2. Be careful: you ... spill the milk if you carry it like that. 3. Most children ... slide on the ice very well. 4. I don't think I ... be here by eleven o'clock tomorrow, but I ... be. 5. ... you see anything in this inky darkness? 6. You ... go when you have finished your compositions. 7. What shall we do if the train is late? It ... be late, you know, after the terrible snowstorms we've had. 8. When ... you come and see me? |– Let me see: I ... not come tomorrow, for I must be at the meeting, but on Sunday I'll find time. Yes, you ... expect me on Sunday about three o'clock. Will that be all right?

Вправа 7. Вставити модальні дієслова may (might) чи can (could). Пере-кладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. ... Iuseyourpen? 2. ...I find a pen on that table? 3. You ... read this book: you know the language well enough. 4. You ... take this book: I don't need it. 5. ... I help you? 6. ... I ask you to help me? 7. ... you help me? 8. I ... not imagine her speaking in public: I knew that she was so shy. 9. Something was wrong with the car: he ... not start it. 10. A fool ... ask more questions than a wise man ... answer. 11. She asked me if she ... use my telephone. 12. The school was silent: nothing ... be heard in the long dark corridors. 13. Waiting ... be endless, you know. 14. ... you tell me the nearest way to the city museum? 15. They ... think that I am too weak to take part in the excursion, but I am strong enough to do any kind of hard work, indeed. 16. He knew this period of history very well: he had read everything on the subject he ... find in the rich university library.

Вправа 8. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. You must work hard at your English. 2. You must learn the words. 3. Must we learn the poem today? 4. It must be very difficult to learn Chinese. 5. You must not talk at the lessons. 6. Everybody must come to school in time. 7. Don't ring him up: he must be very busy. 8. You must not make notes in the books. 9. I must help my mother today.

Вправа 9. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. I had to do a lot of homework yesterday. 2. She had to stay at home because she did not feel well. 3. Pete had to stay at home because it was very cold. 4. Mike had to write this exercise at school because he had not done it at home. 5. They had to call the doctor because the grandmother was ill. 6. Why did you have to stay at home yesterday? – Because my parents were not at home and I had to look after my little sister. 7. I have not written the composition. I shall have to write it on Sunday. 8. We did not have to buy biscuits because granny had baked a delicious pie. 9. Will you have to get up early tomorrow?

Вправа 10. Перепишіть наступні речення в минулому часі. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. It is already twenty minutes past eight. You must go or you will be late for the first lesson. 2. I am very tired. I feel I must go to bed at once, or I shall fall asleep where I am sitting. 3. We can't wait for them any longer; we must ring them up and find out what has happened. 4. I am thinking hard, trying to find a solution of the problem. There must be a way out. 5. It is quite clear to everybody in the family that he must start getting ready for his examination instead of wasting time. 6. It is impossible to do anything in such a short time. I must ask the chief to put off my report. 7. I don't mean that you must do everything they tell you.

Вправа 11. Заповніть пропуски модальними дієсловами can, may чи must. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. What ... we see on this map? 2. ... you speak Spanish? – No, unfortunately I... 3. At what time ... you come to school? 4. ... I come in? 5. You ... not smoke here. 6. ... take your book? – I am afraid not: I need it. 7. He ... not speak English yet. 8. I have very little time: I ... go. 9. They ... go to the park today because they are busy. 10. You ... read this text: it is easy enough.

Вправа 12. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. I was to wait for her at the railway station. 2. We were to go to the cinema that afternoon. 3. They were to start on Monday. 4. He was to telephone the moment she was out of danger. 5. Roses were to be planted round the pond. 6. There was to be a discussion later on. 7. We were to get there before the others. 8. He was to tell her where to find us. 9. She was to graduate that year. 10. She was to wear that dress at the graduation party. 11. He is to come here at five o'clock. 12. The train was to leave at five-fifteen.

Вправа 13. Вставити модальні дієслова to have to чи to be to. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. She ... to send a telegram because it was too late to send a letter. 2. They decided that she ... to send them a telegram every tenth day. 3. You ... to learn all the new words for the next lesson. 4. Do you know this man? He ... to be our new teacher of history. 5. Who ... to go to the library to get the new books? - I was, but I couldn't because I ... to finish some work at the phonetics laboratory. 6. It is raining. You ... to put on your raincoat. 7. "The patient ... to stay in bed for a few days," ordered the doctor. 8. The child had stomach trouble and ... to take castor oil. 9. I told her she ... to open the window for a while every day. 10. The agreement was that if Johnny White could not repay the money he had borrowed, then Luke Flint ... to have the right to sell the land. 11. If I don't ring up before six o'clock, then you ... to go to the concert hall alone and wait for me at the entrance. Is that clear? 12. The planters ... to gather their cotton at once, as they had been warned that heavy rains were expected. 13. I ... to wear glasses as my eyesight is very weak. 14. Johnny White ... to borrow from Luke Flint at a high interest, for there was no one else in the district who lent money. 15. "Cheating is a very nasty thing," said the teacher, "and we ... to get rid of it."

Вправа 14. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. My sister cannot write this letter: she is very busy. 2. My sister need not write this letter: I shall phone them. 3. She cannot buy bread. 4. She need not buy bread. 5. You cannot read so many books. 6. You need not read so many books. 7. Nick cannot go to school today. 8. Nick need not go to school today. 9. They cannot translate this article. 10. They need not translate this article. 11. They could not write the composition. 12. They need not have written the composition. 13.I could not go to the library. 14. I need not have gone to the library. 15. He could not stay there for the night. 16. He need not have stayed there for the night. 17. We could not do all this work. 18. We need not have done all this work. 19. She could not cook such a big dinner. 20. She need not have cooked such a big dinner.

Вправа 15. Вставити модальні дієслова may, must чи need. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. ... we hand in our compositions tomorrow? – No, you ... not, you ... hand them in after Sunday. 2. ... John really do this today? – No, he ... not, he ... do it tomorrow if he likes. 3. You ... not let this cup fall. 4. ... I help you with your coat on? 5. ... I take this book for a little while? – I am sorry, but I ... return it to the library at once. 6. Alec ... practise this sound specially, but the other pupils ... not: they all pronounce it properly. 7. They ... come at any time they like between ten and twelve in the morning, but they ... not come if they don't want to. 8. ... I go there right now? – Yes, you ... .

Вправа 16. Вставити модальні дієслова can, may, must чи need. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. I ... not go out today: it is too cold. 2. ... I take your pen? – Yes, please. 3. We ... not carry the bookcase upstairs: it is too heavy. 4. We ... not carry the bookcase upstairs ourselves: the workers will come and do it. 5. When ... you come to see us? – I ... come only on Sunday. 6. Shall I write a letter to him? – No, you ... not, it is not necessary. 7. ... you cut something without a knife? 8. Peter ... return the book to the library. We all want to read it. 9. Why ... not you understand it? It is so easy. 10. ... we do the exercise at once? – Yes, you ... do it at once. 11. ... you pronounce this sound? 12. You ... not have bought this meat: we have everything for dinner.

Вправа 17. Перепишіть спочатку всі речення, у яких модальне дієслово may (might) виражає дозвіл, а потім речення, у яких воно виражає припущення. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. Children may borrow books from the school library. 2. I may show him your reports later. I don't know. 3. Your hair is getting rather thin, sir, may I advise to change your parting? 4. Mother, may I have a glass of light beer? 5. I may have wrecked my own life, but I will not let you wreck yours. 6. Justice may be slow, mother, but it comes in the end. 7. He may have written the letter, but the signature is certainly not his. 8. It might have been worse. 9. May I come and see you some day? 10. We asked the teacher if we might use dictionaries.

Вправа 18. Перепишіть спочатку всі речення, у яких модальне дієслово must виражає повинність, а потім речення, у яких воно виражає припущення. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. You must be a fool to think so. 2. The work must have been carried out in secret for quite a long time. 3. The question must be solved before we begin doing anything. 4. Mind, you mustn't spend all the money. 5. You must take a taxi if you want to catch that train. 6. You must tell your mother about it. 7. But she must have seen him! 8. Oh, John, think how she must be suffering! 9. Is she waiting? She must have been waiting for an hour. 10. "Oh, Auntie," he answered, "you mustn't talk like that." 11. And remember, you must come and see the baby as soon as you can. 12. You must go home now, Georgie.

Вправа 19. Перефразуйте наступні речення, вживаючи модальне дієслово must. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

Model: Probably I left my textbook in the classroom. I must have left my textbook in the classroom.

1. Probably I left my bag in the canteen. 2. Probably you left your umbrella in the bus. 3. Probably Mary forgot to call me. 4. Probably mother took my umbrella. 5. Probably I have seen you before: your face is familiar to me. 6. Probably you left your exercises-book at school. 7. Evidently she has left the town. 8. Probably Mike has gone to the teachers' room. 9. Probably Tom and Nick are playing football. 10. Probably Helen has got a bad mark. 11. Evidently they have solved the problem. 12. Evidently the pupils have finished writing their composition. 13. Obviously he forgot to warn them. 14. Evidently the meeting was cancelled. 15. Evidently he forgot to send them a telegram. 16. Evidently there was something wrong with the tape-recorder.

Вправа 20. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. Не must have taken it. 2. He had to take it. 3. He must be trying to find the lost stamp. 4. You must try to find the lost stamp. 5. She must be the youngest child in this group. 6. If you want to become a good football player, you must be an all-round athlete. 7. I had to read the letter twice before I understood it. 8. He must have read the letter many times. 9. What must you think of me? 10. They must be talking about us.

Вправа 21. Скажіть, що, на ваш погляд, ці події не могли відбутися. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

Model: Yesterday I saw Pete in the assembly-hall. You can't have seen Pete in the assembly-hall yesterday.

1. Boris was in the canteen five minutes ago. 2. Robert took two bags with him. 3. That was Ann who plugged in the tape-recorder. 4. Nick has been doing the recording for two hours already. 5. It was Mary who rewound the tape. 6. The teacher let me take the tape home. 7. The teacher permitted us to use the dictionary. 8. Nick got up at seven and did his morning exercises. 9. It was Kate who aired the room. 10. There were a lot of pupils in the library yesterday. 11. It was John who broke the radio-set. 12. I saw Ann in the library yesterday.

Вправа 22. Дайте пораду, використовуючи модальне дієслово should і слова, дані в дужках. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

Model: Her diction is not very good (to read aloud). She should read aloud.

1. The boy is a little pale. (to play out-of-doors) 2. I am afraid you will miss that train. (to take a taxi) 3. There is no one in. (to try the room next door) 4. I have a slight irritation in my throat. (to smoke less) 5. This child doesn't want to eat soup. (not to give her sweets before dinner) 6. She makes a lot of spelling mistakes. (to copy passages out of a book) 7. The dog is afraid of him. (not to shout at the dog) 8. The students are unable to follow what I am saying. (not to speak so fast).

Вправа 23. Вставити модальні дієслова should чи must. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. a) You ... have studied the material thoroughly. I see you have made no mistakes in the test-paper. b) You ... have studied the material thoroughly. Then you would not have made so many mistakes. 2. a) She ... have followed the doctor's advice. She would have recovered by now. b) She ... have followed the doctor's advice. She looks very fine. 3. a) You ... have ignored the instructions of your sports coach. That's why you lost the game. b) You ... have followed the instructions of your sports coach. Then you would have won the game. 4. a) She ... have forgotten to take her medicine. b) She ... have remembered to take her medicine. 5. a) I ... have got on the wrong bus. I cannot recognize the places we are passing. b) I ... have looked carefully at the number of the bus. Now I must change buses, and I am afraid I shall be late.

Вправа 24. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. Не must have sold his piano. 2. He may have sold his piano. 3. He might have sold his piano. 4. He can't have sold his piano. 5. He should have sold his piano. 6. He shouldn't have sold his piano. 7. He needn't have sold his piano. 8. He didn't have to sell his piano. 9. He had to sell his piano. 10. He was to sell his piano.

Вправа 25. Вставити придатні модальні дієслова (must, can, need). Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. If you want to improve your English, you ... work very hard. 2. ... I take this book? – Certainly, but you ... not give it to anybody. 3. Mother, ... I go to the country tomorrow?– No, you ... not. The doctor says you ... stay at home for a day or two. 4. There is something wrong with your television-set. You ... call a repairman. – Oh, we ... not do it! My brother ... fix it himself. 5. ... we bring these text-books every day? – No, you ... not: you ... take them from the library. 6. ... you go to the country with us? – No, I am afraid I ... not: I ... go to the library.

Вправа 26. Вставити придатні модальні дієслова (must, may, can, need, to have to, to be able to). Перекладіть речення на рідну мову.

1. You ... not come to help them tomorrow: the work is done. 2. You ... not change the whole text as the beginning is all right. You ... only rewrite the second part of it. 3. ... you help me now? – I am afraid not: I am in a great hurry. I shall be free in the evening. Come to my place at about eight, and I ... help you. 4. John ... not tell us the rules of the game: we know them. 5. ... I return the book to you on Friday? I am afraid I ... not finish it before. – No, that is too late. You ... bring it to me not later than Wednesday. 6. It is already six o'clock. We ... hurry if we don't want to be late. 7. ... you translate this text into English? – I think I ... 8. They spent all the morning on the river bank. Only Ann ... return home as she ... not stay in the sun for such a long time.

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