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Complete the following sentences to summarize the text above:

1. The two main categories in the balance of payments are … .

2. The transactions of produced goods and services are grouped in the following way ….

3. The merchandise trade account shows … .

4. Travel and transportation, tourism, fees and royalties are grouped in … .

5. Unilateral transfers are made … .

6. The capital account measures transactions … .

  • True-false questions:

  1. Two main categories in the balance of payments are the balance account and the capital account.

  1. The balance account summarizes a country’s real transactions involving currently produced goods and services.

  1. The services account measures foreign investment in the country and foreign investment abroad.

  1. The current account of balance is the sum of the exports and the imports of goods, income and net unilateral transfers.

  1. Auditing

Lead-in:

What is the main purpose of auditing?

Key words and phrases

1. auditing ревізія, аудит

2. company’s accounts – рахунки компанії

3. instigators of malpractice – підбурювачи службового злочину

4. internal audit – внутрішній аудит

5. independent audit незалежний аудит

6. reliable and exact data – надійні та точні дані

7. current transactions – поточні операції

8. accounting system – облікова система

9. personnel – персонал, штат

10. fiscal affairs – фінансова діяльність, справи

11. to find fraud – виявляти обман, шахрайство

12. share capital – акціонерний капітал

Auditing is an official inspection of a company’s accounts by a qualified accountant as required by law to ensure that the company balance sheet reflects the true National of its affairs. There are three main roles of auditors: they are responsible for overseeing a company’s finances, responsible for informing authorities of malpractice and they must track down the instigators of malpractice.

There are two types of audit, an internal audit and an independent audit.

An internal audit is usually carried out by a company’s own accountants. Some large companies maintain a continuous internal audit by their own accounting departments. They check for complete, reliable and exact data, that current transactions of the company are recorded promptly and completely.

An independent audit is a review of financial Nationalments and records by an independent auditor, i.e. an accountant not belonging to the company. The major steps of the independent auditing process are as follows:

  • to become acquainted with the firm’s accounting, personnel, production, marketing and other systems;

  • to evaluate the management and the accounting control system in operation;

  • to analyse and review the accounting data of the company;

  • to formulate a judgment on the basis of the inspection.

Not so many years ago the presence of an auditor suggested that a company was having financial difficulties or that irregularities had been discovered in the records. Nowadays independent audits are a normal and a regular part of business practice.

At the final stage of the inspection auditors write reports to the management on the current National of the company’s fiscal affairs in the form of Auditor’s Report or Auditor’s Opinion, where they may underline some weak points and recommend how to improve operating procedures. If the auditor finds any fraud he must take further investigations. Who appoints auditors? Senior executives and advisors of the company do it. Then the candidates are to be approved by the owners of the share capital at the company’s meeting. As we have already said, nowadays it is generally accepted that every business should be audited.

Comprehension:

1. What is auditing?

2. Name three main roles of auditors.

3. Who is an internal audit carried out by?

4. What are the major steps of an independent auditing process?

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