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Molecular and Cellular Signaling - Martin Beckerman

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Supersecondary structures, 29 Suppressor of Fused, 318, 319f Suppressor of Hairless, 306t, 307, 308f SWI/SNF complex, 386, 386t, 392–393,

398t

Synapse, 213, 234–235, 514–515, 515f; see also Postsynaptic density, Presynaptic terminal

Synaptic cleft, 514–515, 515f Synaptic current, in Hodgkin–Huxley

equation, 471

Synaptic plasticity, 511, 526–527, 527f, 528–529, 528f, 536, 551

in drug addiction, 533 Synaptic signaling, 248–249, 551 SynCAMs, 514–515, 515f

T1, T2 cells, 191t, 192 TACE metalloprotease, 311 Tachykinins, 290

Tap42 protein, see Protein phosphatase 1/2A

Targets of rapamycin proteins, 120t, 131

Targets of rapamycin signaling, 131–134, 132f, 133f, 134f

Tar receptor, see Bacterial receptors TATA-binding protein, 386–387, 387f,

394, 394t

TATA box, 386–387, 387f TBP-associated factors, 394, 394t T cells, 189, 189t

CD4, CD8 co-receptors, 209–210, 210f

cytokines, see Interleukins differentiation, 192, 192f receptors, 207–212, 210f, 211t

Telomerase production, 354–355 Telomere, 354–355, 551 Temporal lobe, 512f, 513

Terminal oligopyrimidine tract, 133, 133f

Tertiary structure, 552; see also Protein structure

TFIIA structure, 391, 392f TFIIB-recognition element, 386,

387f

TGF-b pathway, 311–314, 312f in cancer, 338–339

Index 573

Therapeutic drugs, see Control layer, Drugs

Thermal energies, 47 Thermal equilibration, see

Equilibration Thermodynamics

first law, 90–91

Gibbs free energy, 93–94 second law, 91–93

Thermodynamic shift, see Energy barrier

Theta waves, 490t, 492 Thymus, 247

Thyroid gland, 247 Thyroid hormone, 393t

Thyroid-stimulating hormone, 286, 287t Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, 286,

287t

Tie receptors, 249–250, 250f Time-of-flight spectrometer, 64–65,

68–69

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors, 366–367, 367t, 369

Togavirus family, 445t Toll/IL-1/Dorsal signaling, 191t, 193,

198–199, 199f, 323 Tonic firing, 492–494, 493f, 552 Tourette syndrome, 291 Toxins, 428, 433–434, 433f Toxic shock syndrome, 432 TRADD adapter, 367, 368f

TRAF adapters, 197, 198f, 252, 253f in Toll signaling, 199f

in Tumor necrosis factor signaling, 196–197, 200, 200f

TRAF2 adapter, 367, 368f Transcription, 5, 5f, 22–23 Transcription factors, 117–119, 552

bacterial, 416–418, 416t

eukaryotic, 387–393, 388f, 390f, 391f, 392f

Transducin, 280t, 297 Transduction, bacterial, 431, 552 Transformation, bacterial, 431, 552

Transforming growth factor-b, 311–312, 312f, 313t

Transition rate, 108–109

Transition state, 104–105, 158–159, 159f Translation, 5, 5f

574 Index

Translation initiation and regulation, 14; see also Eukaryotic initiation factors, Messenger RNAs

Translocations, 340 Transport vesicles, 268–270 Tricyclic antidepressants, 292

Tritonia diomedea, 500, 506–507, 520 Trophic factor, 251, 552

Trp ion channels, 297, 298f t-Snares, see SNARE proteins

Tumor necrosis factor family, 191t, 193, 199–200, 200f, 366–367, 367t, 368f

Tumor suppressors, 332–334, 333t, 552 Two-component signaling, 139–141,

140f, 140t, 152–157, 552 bacterial transcription factors,

417–418

Tyrosine kinases, 119–120 Tyrosine phosphatases, 124

Ubiquitination, 39–40, 40f, 552 Ultraviolet radiation, 47f, 61, 331, 341 Umami tastants, 299, 300 Unconditioned stimulus, 520 Unfolded state, see Denatured state

Van der Waals forces, see Macromolecular forces

Vascular endothelial growth factor, 249–250, 250f

Vasculogenesis, 249–250, 552 Vasopressin, 290t Vasopressin GPCR, 277t

Ventral tegmental area, 291, 530–531, 531f, 531–533, 532f

Venules, 231

Verlet algorithm, 87

Vibrio cholerae, 416

Vibrio harveyi, see Luminescent bacteria

VIP/PACAP GPCR, 277t, 278 Viral diseases, 444–445, 445t Virulence cassettes, 419, 432–433

Virulence factors, 427t, 428, 432, 552

Viral genomes, 441, 445

bacteriophage lambda, 457–458, 457f hepatitis C virus, 448, 448f

HIV, 452–453, 453f

human T lymphotropic virus, 449–450, 450f

Kaposi’s sarcoma virus, 451f

Viral host interactions, 445–447, 446t, 447–449, 448t

Viral movement, 442–444 Viral oncogenes, 336 Viral structure, 441

bacteriophage lambda, 457, 457f HIV, 452–453, 452f

Viscosity, 135, 138

Visible light, 47f

Vision brain area, 513, 513f Vitamin D3, 393t

Voltage-dependent anion channels, 370, 370f

Voltage-gated calcium channels, see Calcium channels, voltage-gated

Vomeronasal organ, 299 v-Snares, see SNARE proteins

Water molecules, 74, 84–85 WD-40 repeat, 32t

White blood cells, see Leukocytes Wingless and Wnt, 314–315, 315f, 316f Wnt pathway, 314–317, 316f, 321t,

325–326

in cancer, 338–339 Wound healing, 250–251 WW domain, 256, 257t

X-ray crystallography, 22, 45, 46t, 47f, 49–53, 51f, 52f

Yeast two-hybrid, 45–46, 46t, 61–62

Yersinia pestis, 433

Yop virulon, see Yersinia pestis

Zinc finger domain, 391, 392f Zonula adherens junction, 227 Zymogens, 361, 552