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Collider design

Exercise 57. Read and translate the text.

The electron source for the ILC will use 2-nanosecond laser light pulses to eject electrons from a photocathode, a technique allowing for up to 80% of the electrons to be polarized; the electrons then will be accelerated to 5 GeV in a 250-meter linac stage. Synchrotron radiation from high energy electrons will produce electron-positron pairs on a titanium-alloy target, with as much as 60% polarization; the positrons from these collisions will be collected and accelerated to 5 GeV in a separate linac.

To compact the 5 GeV electron and positron bunches to a sufficiently small size to be usefully collided, they will circulate for 0.2 seconds in a pair of damping rings, 7 km in circumference, in which they will be reduced in size to a few mm in length and less than 100 μm diameter.

From the damping rings the particle bunches will be sent to the Superconducting RF main linacs, each 12 km long, where they will be accelerated to 250 GeV. At this energy each beam will have an average power of about 10 megawatts. Five bunch trains will be produced and accelerated per second.

To maintain a sufficient luminosity to produce results in a reasonable time frame after acceleration the bunches will be focused to a few nm in height and a few hundred nm in width. The focused bunches then will be collided inside one of two large particle detectors.

Exercise 58. Give the summary of the text.

Where have I heard that name before?

Exercise 59. Before you start:

What are these things? What have the words got in common?

Biro ■ Braille ■ guillotine ■ Hoover ■ Jacuzzi ■ Levis ■ Stetson

Exercise 60. Put these standard international (SI) units into the correct column.

amp ■ Celsius ■ curie ■ hertz ■ joule ■ kelvin ■ newton ■ ohm ■pascal ■ volt ■ watt

Chemistry (1)

Electricity (6)

Physics (2)

Temperature (2)

Exercise 61. Now complete the definitions (1-11) below with the units from Exercise 2 and the people in the box.

Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836) ■ Anders Celsius (1701-1744) Marie Curie (1867-1934) ■ Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) ■ James Prescott Joule (1818-1889) «Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) ■ Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854) «Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) ■ Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) ■ Count Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) «James Watt (1736-1819).

1. A _________is a unit of pressure equal to one newton per square metre. It's named after _____a French scientist.

2. A ________ is a unit of force. It`s named after ________ an English mathematician.

3. is the temperature scale that has the freezing point of water as 0° С and the boiling point as 100° C. The scale was developed by a Swedish astronomer, ________.

4. A _________ is an amount of electric power. It is equal to one joule per second. It's named after _______, a Scottish engineer and inventor.

5. A ___ is a unit of electric force. It's named after _____ an Italian physicist and pioneer in the study of electricity.

6. An is a unit of electric current. It's named after _____ a French mathematician and physicist, a pioneer in electrodynamics.

7. An is a unit of electrical resistance named after _______a German physicist.

8. A ________ a unit of energy named after _______ a British physicist.

9. is the temperature scale that registers absolute zero (-273.15 C) as 0°K. It's named after _______ a British scientist.

10. A is a frequency equal to one cycle per second. It's named after ___ a German physicist.

11. A is a unit of radioactivity. It's named after ____ a Polish-born chemist who discovered radioactivity in several elements.

Exercise 62. Read the definitions in Exercise 3 again. Find words that mean:

1. studies the elements and their compounds

2. studies the universe

3. studies the physical properties of materials

4. thinks of new machines

5. develops new ideas about a subject

Exercise 63. Find out which things in this list are named after people. Can you add similar words from your language?

  • Mouse (for a computer)

  • Bunsen (burner)

  • Diesel

  • Geiger (counter)

  • Laboratory

  • Morse (code)

  • Tarmac

  • Text(book)