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3. What brought Einstein more joy than anything else?

Einstein impressed everybody as being a very happy man. He said he was happy because he didn't want anything from anybody. He didn't want money or titles or praise. He made his own happiness out of such simple things as his work, his violin and his boat. Einstein's violin brought him more joy than anything else in life. He said he often thought in music.

4. By what illustration did Einstein explain his Theory of Relativity?

Einstein's Theory of Relativity, which seemed a flight of imagination to many at first, is now the cornerstone of modem physics. Many physical phenomena could never be explained without the Theory of Relativity.

Einstein said that there were only twelve people living who understood his Theory of Relativity, although more than nine hundred books had been written trying to explain it.

He himself explained relativity by this very simple illustration: "When you sit with a nice girl for an hour, you think it is only a minute, but when you sit on a hot stove for a minute, you think it is an hour. Well, well – so that's relativity. It sounds all right to me; but if you don't believe me and would like to try it out, I'll be glad to sit with the girl if you'll sit on the stove."

5. What two rules of conduct did Einstein have?

Mrs. Einstein said that even she didn't understand the Theory of Relativity, but she understood something that is more important for a wife; she understood her husband.

Mrs. Einstein said that her husband liked order in his thinking, but he didn't like it in his living. He did whatever he wanted to, whenever he wanted to; he had only two rules of conduct. The first was: don't have any rules whatever. And the second was: be independent of the opinions of others.

Part 13 Современные достижения науки. Перспективы развития науки.

Text 1. The implications of nanotechnology

Exercise 1. Work with your partner. In your own language, think of four-six words to describe nanotechnology. Compare your words with another pair and agree on five words. How do you say these words in English? Write down five English words to describe nanotechnology. Use these words in your own sentences.

Exercise 2. Master the active vocabulary:

implication — значение, смысл (скрытый)

nanotechnology - нанотехнология

gamut — диапазон, полнота, глубина

affair — дело

a human of affairs -общественное дело

benefit — выгода, польза, прибыль

enhancement- увеличение, усиление,повышение цены

nutrition — пища, питание

auto-fabrication - производство автомобиля

modest — скромный, умеренный, благопристойный

benign — добрый, мягкий, доброкачественный

abundance — изобилие, избыток, множество

crops — посев, культуры

drugs — лекарство, медикаменты

convergent — угол конвергенции, сходящийся в одной точке

risks - риск, угроза, опасность

issues — вопрос, проблема

to overlook — следить, обозревать

to releasе — выпускать

transitional — промежуточный, переходный

warfare — война, борьба, конфликт

to implant — насаждать, внедрять,имплантировать

surveillance — надзор, обследование, инспектирование

merit — заслуга, достоинство, качество, заслужить, быть достойным

to deal with – иметь дело, вести дело

exclusion — исключение

The implications of nanotechnology run the gamut of human affairs from the medical, ethical, mental, legal and environmental, to fields such as engineering, biology, chemistry, computing, materials science, military applications, and communications.

Benefits of nanotechnology include improved manufacturing methods, water purification systems, energy systems, physical enhancement nanomedicine, better food production methods and nutrition and large scale infrastructure auto-fabrication. Products made with nanotechnology may require little labor, land, or maintenance, be highly productive, low in cost, and have modest requirements for materials and energy. Nano optimists, including many governments, see nanotechnology delivering benefits such as:

    1. environmentally benign material abundance for all by providing universal clean water supplies

    2. atomically engineered food and crops resulting in greater agricultural productivity with fewer labour requirements

    3. nutritionally enhanced interactive ‘smart’ foods.

    4. cheap and powerful energy generation

    5. clean and highly efficient manufacturing

    6. radically improved formulation of drugs, diagnostics and organ replacement

    7. much greater information storage and communication capacities

    8. interactive ‘smart’ appliances; and increased human performance through convergent technologies

Risks include environmental, health, and safety issues if negative effects of nanoparticles are overlooked before they are released; transitional effects such as displacement of traditional industries as the products of nanotechnology become dominant; military applications such as biological warfare and implants for soldiers; and surveillance through nano-sensors, which are of concern to privacy rights advocates. Potential risks of nanotechnology can broadly be grouped into four areas:

- Health issues - the effects of nanomaterials on human biology

- Environmental issues - the effects of nanomaterials on the environment

- Societal issues - the effects that the availability of nanotechnological devices will have on politics and human interaction

- "Grey goo" - the specific risks associated with the speculative vision of molecular nanotechnology.

There is debate about whether nanotechnology merits special government regulation, and regulatory bodies such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Health & Consumer Protection Directorate of the European Commission have started dealing with the potential risks of nanoparticles. The organic food sector has been the first to act with the regulated exclusion of engineered nanoparticles from certified organic produce in Australia and the UK.

Exercise 3. Match the highlighted words from the text with the meanings below.

Significance

profit

manufacture

plenty

intelligent

problem

advantage

Exercise 4. Find the English equivalents.

Проблема, промежуточный, хранение, значение, избыток, борьба, нанотехнология, угол конвергенции, достоинство, увеличение, наночастицы, затраты, органы управления, питание, иметь дело, исключение, обследование, следить, выпускать.

Exercise 5. Ask 5 questions about the text.

Exercise 6. True or False?

1. Nanotechnology includes engineering, biology, chemistry, computing, materials science, military applications and communications.

2. Benefits of technology include improved manufacturing plant, soil purification systems.

3. Products made with nanotechnology require more labour, land, or maintenance, be highly productive, high in cost.

4. Products of nanotechnology have modest requirements for materials and energy.

5. Nano optimists see nanotechnology delivering benefits such as interactive ‘smart’ appliances.

6. Transitional effects such as displacement of traditional industries as the products of nanotechnology become dominant.

7. Potential risks of nanotechnology can broadly be grouped into five areas.

8. "Green goo" - the specific risks associated with the speculative vision of molecular nanotechnology.

Exercise 7. Translate into English.

1. Нанотехнология имеет большое значение в медицине, инженерии, биологии, коммуникации.

2. Продукты, сделанные при помощи нанотехнологии не требуют большего труда и больших затрат.

3. Негативное влияние наночастиц прослеживается перед тем, как они выпускаются.

4. Существуют потенциальные группы влияния нанотехнологии: проблема здоровья, проблема окружающей среды, общественные проблемы.