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II Read and translate the text Assembly line in the usa. Make up the plan in form of questions, render the text. Assembly line in the usa

When the United States entered World War II, its heavy industries were charged with manufacturing the material for the armed services. The assembly line was crucial to this production. In March 1941, Ford began building a factory and, by the end of 1942, was taking in raw materials at one end, processing them, and producing B-24 bombers. By The end of the war, Ford's factory was producing B-17 bombers at the rate of one every sixty-three minutes.

General Motors made an impressive innovation with its production of chassis for combat tanks. Despite being a big and heavy machine, a tank needed to be tight in its joints and fluid in its reactions to the men operating it. With early tanks, the impact of an enemy shell might not breach the American tank's armour but would blow bolts loose in the interior, killing the people inside. The management at General Motors was not alone in realizing that the bolts had to be replaced by welds, but it was their engineers who came up with the assembly line innovation that helped make the welds succeed. Instead of using machines to do the welding, they employed human welders as craftsmen; they created an enormous machine that could pick up a tank chassis and tilt it quickly to any angle the welders wanted. The assembly line station became a craftsman's shop, with the line responding to the workers rather than the workers just being parts of the machine. Decades later, the Japanese manufacturer Toyota would use a similar machine to weld its automobile chassis, and a similar concept for the work stations. General Motors did them both first.

The assembly line affected the lives of American women. Women fit into many assembly line jobs previously only done by men. The assembly line was successful enough at relieving workers of the tasks requiring brute strength. Historians note the millions of American women who left their jobs when American servicemen returned to civilian life; not so often noted is that women workers were so good at their tasks that aircraft manufacturers and auto makers kept many of them employed to handle tasks such as wiring.

III Communicative skills

Read and translate the following dialogs.

1. Phase 1 of a project

A: Hi, Paolo. How are things going?

B: Everything’s going very well. The first phase of the project was finished three days ahead of schedule. We’re on target to complete phase two by the beginning of week 40.

A: That’s good news. What stage are you at now?

B: Well, we’ve just finished laying the cabling and we’re waiting for the safety inspector to give us the go-ahead to continue. I’m just going to meet him. Do you want to come?

2. A new stock system

A: Is the new computerized stock system in operation?

B: Not quite. The software engineers are testing it just now.

A: Have all the operations been trained on it?

B: Yes, most of them. We trained on a dummy system last month. A couple of people were away so we’ve organized two more training sessions on the live system for the whole team this week.

3. Going live

A: Our new production control program’s going live on Monday. The old and the new programs will operate in tandem for four to six weeks. That should give us time to iron out little problems.

B: Hope it all goes well. We’re very busy at the moment and certainly don’t want any problems at this time of year.

A: Yes, I realize that. We’ve spent a long time planning and preparing for the changeover. I’m confident we won’t have any major problems.

4. An upgrade

A: We need to take the accounts system offline to carry out the upgrade. But don’t worry; it won’t cause too much inconvenience. We’re going to do it over the weekend.

B: How long will the system be down for?

A: We’ll be taking everything offline in about two hour time. It’ll be down for a minimum of twelve hours. If everything goes according to plan, it should be up again by 6 pm on Saturday.

B: That’s fine. We’ve allowed forty-eight hours to be on the safe side.

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