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2. Make up and present a dialog (use expressions and topics from the dialogs given above).

IV Comprehensive skills

  1. to distribute – розподіляти

  2. separation – розподіл

  3. to allocate – розподіляти

  4. to engage – бути зайнятим

Listen to the text A Human and a Machine. Read the following statements, say whether they are true (T) or false (F).

  1. Humans are worse in the ability to reason inductively.

  2. Machines are better in conducting complex operations.

  3. Machines can process parallel tasks.

  4. It is not so important to distribute tasks between a human and a machine.

  5. The distribution of tasks can be static and dynamic.

Unit 4. Assembly lines

1. to assemble - збирати

2. versatility - різноманітність

3. capacity - емність

4. to converge – об’єднувати

5. raw material - сировина

6. to quantify - вираховувати

7. amphibious – катер амфібія

8. cotton gin – хлопкоочисна машина

9. interchangeable - взаємозамінний

10. descriptive geometry – нарисна геометрія

I Read and translate the text Assembly line. The foundation of assembly line. Assembly line. The foundation of assembly line

The assembly line is often described as a process that uses machines to move material from one place to another, but in practice, machines are not always needed. For instance, mass-market jewellers often use assembly lines in which materials are handed from one worker to another, without the benefit of machinery. At its most basic, an assembly line is a series of stations at which people or machines add to or assemble parts for a product.

One of the values of the assembly line is its versatility: it can be simple, but it has the capacity to be very complex. An assembly line can begin as many different lines each devoted to a different component of a product, with the lines converging upon one another, becoming fewer until only one line is left for the final product. Automotive companies often have assembly lines that begin with raw materials and end five miles away with a completed automobile. A structure for a complex assembly line begins as one main line with stations along it that are fed by lines running perpendicular to it, with each of these side lines feeding components for the finished product. Although the assembly line has occasionally been considered old-fashioned, it has survived by repeatedly changing its form.

The idea of the assembly line has many parents. In the scientific revolution of the eighteenth century, scientists, especially mathematicians tried to quantify what made an industry productive and tried to find ways to make industries more productive. The goal was to create an industry that functioned without human labour. The most important people of the time for the development of the assembly line were the Americans Oliver Evans and Eli Whitney and the Frenchman Gaspard Monge. Evans is known for his invention of the first motorized amphibious vehicle, but his most influential achievement was to design a flour mill. During the late eighteenth century, he used steam engines to power mills that used belt and screw conveyors, as well as moving hoppers, to move grain through the process of becoming flour and then to move the flour to where it could be packaged. While his equipment was not exactly an assembly line, all the basic components were there.

Best known for creating the cotton gin, Eli Whitney also contributed to the development of the assembly line with his invention of interchangeable parts. Whitney created machine tools that could create parts so closely resembling each other they could be substituted for one another without harm. Gaspard Monge made his contribution while in Italy during the Napoleonic era. He took the principals of descriptive geometry and applied them to machinery. By breaking a machine down into its component parts, Monge found that he could show how each part related to the others; this would evolve into technical drawing, which allowed people to make machines they had never seen, machines that would share interchangeable parts with any other machine made with the same diagrams.

  1. Answer the following questions.

  1. When did the idea of using assembly lines first appear?

  2. What did Oliver Evans invent?

  3. What did Eli Whitney invent?

  4. Where were Evans and Whitney’s inventions used?

  5. Who is responsible for implementing technical drawings?

  6. What is assembly line used for?

  7. Did assembly line help to create an industry without human labour?

  1. Say, whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F)

  1. The idea of assembly line has no parents.

  2. Scientist tried to find the way of making industries more productive in XVI century.

  3. Mathematicians wanted to create an industry without human labour.

  4. Evans is known for inventing the first cotton gin.

  5. Eli Whitney is for working with the first motorized amphibious vehicle.

  6. During the late XVIII c. steam engines were used to power flour mills.

  7. Eli Whitney contributed to development ob assembly lines with his invention of technical drawing.

  8. Technical drawing allowed creating machines sharing interchangeable parts.

  1. Match English word or word-group with its Ukrainian equivalents.

  1. Assembly line а. креслення

  2. versatility b. конвейер

  3. raw materials c. різноманітність

  4. out fashioned d. вирахувати

  5. quantify e. застарілий

  6. conveyor f. хлопкоочисна машина

  7. cotton gin g. лінія поточної зборки

  8. technical drawing h. сировина

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