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1. Answer the following questions.

  1. What is the process of automation?

  2. What are the fundamental components of any automated process?

  3. What does programmability imply?

  4. In what two groups can automated tasks and processes be divided?

  5. What does automated manufacturing include?

  6. What does information processing and control include?

  7. What is the open loop automated task?

  1. Complete the following sentences.

  1. As a technology, automation…

  2. …of any automated process are…

  3. …process proceeds without any…

  4. …can be attempted by…

  5. …includes automated machine…

  6. Automated information processing…

  7. …automated electric utility…

  1. Define the following terms.

  1. Automation

  2. A machine

  3. Feedback

  4. Open-loop automated task

  5. Automated information processing

II Read and translate the text The Goal of Automation Development. Make up the plan in form of questions, render the text. The Goal of Automation Development

It has long been the goal in the area of automation to create systems which could react to unforeseen events with reasoning and problem-solving abilities alike to those of an experienced human, that is, to exhibit artificial intelligence.

Indeed, the study of artificial intelligence is devoted to developing computer programs that can mimic the product of intelligent human problem solving, perception, and thought. For example, such a system could be envisioned to perform much like a human co-pilot in airline operations, communicating with the pilot via voice input and spoken output, assuming duties when and where assigned, and relieving the pilot of many duties. Indeed, such an automated system has been studied and named a pilot's associate.

Machines exhibiting artificial intelligence obviously render the sharp demarcation between functions better performed by humans than by machines somewhat questionable. While the early promise of artificial intelligence has not been fully realized in practice, certain applications in more restrictive domains have been highly successful. These include the use of expert systems, which mimic the activity of human experts in limited domains, such as diagnosis of infectious diseases or providing guidance for oil exploration and drilling.

Expert systems generally operate by replacing human activity entirely, providing advice or decision support, or training a novice human in a particular field.

III Communicative skills

Read and translate the following dialogs.

  1. A new installation

A: Would you like me to show you our new cleaning unit? It’s a clever design.

B: Yes, I’d like to see that. What does it clean exactly?

A: It washes the solvent off all metal parts – the blades, trays etc. – and then sends it back into the system.

B: What does it consist of?

A: Well, it’s basically two tanks – one for the dirty solvent and one for the clean solvent – a pump and a washing unit. Oh, and there’s a cooling system and a filter. It’s all controlled by a PLC system – that stands for Process Logic Control.

Solvent – розчинник

Cooling systemсистема охолодження

  1. Speed and capacity

A: OK, so this is our newest machine. It was only installed last year.

B: What’s the running speed of the machine?

A: About 1 500 metres per minute. It’s one of the fastest in the world. We had a few problems with it after start-up but it is running very well now.

B: And what is the maximum output?

A: If we are running at full capacity, it’s 160 000 tonnes per annum.

Running speed – щвидкість роботи

Capacity – емність

  1. Explaining the process

A: Could you explain the paper-making process to us – in very simple terms – please?

B: Well, the pulp falls from a box onto the first part of the paper machine, which is basically a wire bed with large holes in it, where most of the water is extracted.

A: So, is it actually paper at this stage?

B: Yes, it is. But we need to take out more water. So it then passes through a series of rollers, where more water is squeezed out. After that it goes through the dryers, which are at a very high temperature. The paper is then coated. And finally it’s wound onto reels and cut down into smaller lengths.

Wire bed – сітка

Reel – бобіна

  1. Automation

A: Is the factory fully-automated?

B: Not completely. Our production process is partially-automated. We use robots on the production line for routine assembly jobs but some of the work is still done manually.

A: What about supply of parts to the production lines?

B: Well, the parts are automatically selected from the store room using a bar-code system. And there is an automatic feeder which takes them to the conveyor belt at the start of the production line.

A: What about the smaller components?

B: They’re transported to the workstations on automated vehicles – robot trucks – which run on guide rails around the factory.

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