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2. Make up and present a dialog (use expressions and topics from the dialogs given above).

IV Comprehensive skills

  1. Cliché – кліше

  2. resistance – опір

  3. to reduce – зменшити

  4. improve – покращити

Listen to the text Reaction in 1950s. Read the following statements, say whether they are true (T) or false (F).

  1. There was no resistance to the adoption of CNC tools.

  2. The reaction of the public was generally positive.

  3. The idea of automation was very powerful and soon become a cliché in popular press and movies.

  4. The new factories reduced the need for skilled mechanists.

  5. Automated production machinery improved the quality of many items.

Unit 2. Roots of Automation

1. to coin - впроваджувати, створювати слово

2. to imply - мати на увазі,

3. assembly - збірка частин

4. stamping - штамповка

5. deskilling - втрата робочої кваліфікації

6. outright - повний

7. impetus - імпульс, стимул

8. machinist - інженер, механік

9. to predetermine – попередньо встановлена

10. pitfall - недолік

I Read and translate the text History of Automation. History of Automation

"Automation" refers more to an ideal for industrial production than any one set of technologies or practices. The word was coined in 1946 by the Ford Motor Company's vice president, Dale S. Harder, who used it to describe the automatic or semiautomatic mechanical equipment then coming into use for the assembly of automobiles, the machining of automobile parts, and the stamping of sheet metal items such as fenders. While the popular press sometimes described these machines as "robots," implying a humanlike flexibility of application, the technologies Harder described were designed to perform a single task.

Later, the term automation was often used to describe computer-controlled (usually programmable) machines that did include the potential to work on various different tasks. The mechanization was largely a nineteenth-century phenomenon, involving the deskilling of work or the outright replacement of craft workers with machines. This movement was reaching its limits at Ford and elsewhere by 1950, just at the time when university and military researchers were investigating a new technology that combined traditional production machinery, especially machine tools, and the newly developed electronic computer. By the early 1950s, there would be a distinction in engineering circles between "Detroit auto-mation," relying on mechanical means, and computer automation. The impetus for this development was the military's desire to produce aircraft parts at a high rate of speed and with high quality control. Also, aircraft and missiles were then being developed which used parts that were extremely difficult to make, and it was believed that a machine could do a better job than even the most skilled machinist.

The U.S. Air Force, working closely with engineers, introduced the first "numerically controlled" (NC) machine tools in the late 1940s. These machine tools used technologies derived from the computer to control the machine in accordance with a predetermined program. An NC-equipped machine tool could be conveniently reprogrammed whenever necessary, avoiding the inflexibility that was seen as the major pitfall of Detroit automation.

Although the early machines did not completely eliminate human labour, they approached the ideal. Later, engineers distinguished these NC tools from so-called computer numerical control (CNC), which received instructions from a general-purpose computer, often linked to the tool by wires. CNC is the standard technology used today, although its commercial success was slow in coming. While the aircraft industry, largely because of military support, widely adopted NC and CNC machine tools by the 1960s, few other industries did. Few consumer products were as profitable as aircraft parts, making NC/CNC tools too expensive to justify.

  1. Answer the following questions.

  1. When was the word automation firstly used?

  2. What did this term describe?

  3. What is mechanization?

  4. When did distinction between automation and mechanization appear?

  5. In what industry was the first “numerically-controlled” machine introduced?

  6. What was the major disadvantage of Detroit automation?

  7. Was CNC technology profitable from the start?

  8. Could first CN machines be reprogrammed if necessary?

  1. Complete the following sentences.

  1. Automation refers to…

  2. Dale S. Harder used the term automation to describe…

  3. The technologies Harder described were designed to…

  4. The Mechanization involved the replacement of…

  5. This movement reached its limits at…

  6. The U.S. Air Force, working with engineers introduced…

  7. Engineers distinguished the NC tool from…

  8. While the aircraft widely adopted NC and CNC machine tools…

  1. Match English word or word-group with its Ukrainian equivalent.

  1. production a. впроваджувати

  2. quality control b. виконувати

  3. to combine c. репрограмувати

  4. to coin d. виробництво

  5. general-purpose computer e. прибутковий

  6. profitable f. створити

  7. reprogram g. поєднувати

  8. to perform h. контроль якості

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