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2. Look at the graphs.

The incarceration rate in the USA doubled from 300 to 600 people per 100,000 population. (Incarceration means being put into prison.)

Make similar sentences about South Africa, England / Wales, Denmark, the Netherlands and Japan.

Which country had the most/fewest people in prison in 1985? Which country had the most/fewest people in prison in 1995?

Incarceration rate

3. Work in pairs. Look at the graph and fill in the gaps.

The graph represents statistics concerning offences involving firearms recorded by the police in England and Wales during the period 1972-90 submitted by the Home Office. The graph shows that in the last quarter of the twentieth century there was a definite (1)___________ in crimes with firearms (guns, rifles etc) in England and Wales.

During the period 1972-90 the number of criminal damage offences involving firearms showed (2)____________ from 4,500 to 11,000. From 1972 to 1981 there was a consistent (3)________________ in the number of criminal damage offences. From 1977 to 1978 criminal damage offences rose (4)___________ by (5)__________. During the period 1981-90 each fall in criminal damage offences was followed by (6)___________ . Criminal damage figures (7)_____________ steeply from 1985 to 1988.

Continue the analysis of the graph with information about robberies and violence against the person involving firearms.

Writing Writing a survey report

1. Read the definition of a survey report and do the task that follows.

Survey Reports

Reports are pieces of factual writing which are usually based on some type of research. There are various types of reports such as: survey reports, reports assessing good and bad points of something, travel/holiday reports, news reports, witness statements, etc.

A survey report is a formal piece of writing presenting and analyzing the results/findings of research concerning reactions to a product, plan, etc, including general assessment conclusions and/or recommendation(s).

The results of research can be presented in different ways:

Aproperty developer is building a retirement complex. There is some extra space, so they have surveyed prospective residents as to which facility they would like included.

Pie graph/chart

Bar graph/chart

The pie chart represents the same results as the bar chart on the left. Can you fill out its sections with percentages?

2. Look at the results of the survey above, then fill in the sentences below with the vocabulary provided.

In order to describe the results/present them as a text, special vocabulary is used, e.g. Number majority per cent percentage one in four

1. The ______________ of those questioned wanted a swimming pool built.

2. A very small ______________ of the people surveyed were interested in having

an arts and crafts centre.

3. A reasonably small ______________ of those who responded wanted a bowling green or library.

4. Twelve ______________ of the people who responded to the survey wished to have a gym included in the facilities.

5. ______________ of those questioned wanted a bowling green.

3. All the sentences in Ex.2 state facts. Generalisations are statements which can help clarify the facts. They can either precede or come after the facts. Depending on their position, facts and generalizations can be linked by using verbs either in their active or passive form as in the examples:

Fifty-five per cent of young people go the cinema at least twice a month. This indicates/shows/demonstrates/illustrates that the cinema is still quite a popular form of entertainment among young people.

The cinema is still quite a popular form of entertainment among young people, which is shown/indicated/illustrated/implied by the fact that fifty-five per cent of young people go the cinema at least twice a month.

Read the facts and the generalizations listed below, and decide which sentences go together. Link them using one of the two possible ways.

Facts:

1. About one quarter of those questioned expressed interest in having a bowling green.

2. By far the largest number of those surveyed responded positively to the idea of having a swimming pool installed.

3. A small minority of those questioned thought that an arts and crafts centre would be a useful addition.

4. Twenty-four per cent of respondents wanted a bowling green and nineteen per cent requested a library.

5. A small proportion of the people asked wanted the developer to build a gym and aerobics studio.

Generalisations:

a. Some of the prospective residents enjoy taking strenuous exercise. b. Sociable team-sports appeal. c. In general, pensioners do not enjoy creative activities like painting and pottery.

d. Among pensioners, relaxing aquatic sports are generally preferred to working out in a gym. e. e. Outdoor activities and reading are quite popular pastimes.

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