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4. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

1. Have you ever heard me ___________ (sing) O Sole Mio?

2. They saw a suspicious young man ___________ (enter) the building shortly before the incident.

3. As we drove over the river we noticed local women ___________ (wash) their clothes in the water.

4. I once heard Karajan ___________ (conduct) the whole Ring cycle – it was wonderful.

5. The woman woke up in the middle of the night, looked out of her window and saw something strange ___________ (fly) over the trees in the park.

/Adapted from Advanced Learners’ Grammar, Mark Foley and Diane Hall/

5. Bringing up teenagers

Look at this list. Check the things you think are important to make and let a teenager do. Compare and discuss your list with a partner.

  • stay out until midnight on weekends

  • stay over at a friend’s house

  • travel alone to a foreign country

  • get a part-time job

  • dye his or her hair another colour

  • smoke

  • drink alcohol

  • take care of younger children

  • learn to drive

  • study every day, including weekends

  • exercise

  • go to the dentist every year

  • learn another language

  • pay part of the bills

Example:

A: I think it’s important to make your kids come home before midnight – even on weekends.

B: I’m not so sure. I think parents should let their children stay out late one night a week. It gives them a sense of responsibility. …

/from Focus on grammar, Marjorie Fuchs, Margaret Bonner/

Language review Verb patterns

When you use two verbs together in English you need to decide whether the second verb should be the infinitive with or without to, or the –ing form. The structure you use depends on the first verb.

1. Verb + to + infinitive

These verbs are followed by to + infinitive:

agree appear arrange ask attempt choose decide

expect fail hurry learn manage offer prepare promise

refuse seem tell tend try want warn

We can group some of these verbs like this:

  • Reality verbs: appear, seem:

He seems to like music.

  • Effort verbs: try, attempt, fail, manage:

She failed to reach the final of the competition.

Tend + to + infinitive means you usually or often do something.

I tend to get up earlier when the weather’s good.

I tend not to drink coffee in the afternoon.

2. Verb + object + to + infinitive

These verbs are followed by an object + to + infinitive:

ask choose expect tell want warn

encourage recommend forbid permit allow advise

I wanted the sun to shine on my birthday.

Many of these are reporting verbs: ask, tell, encourage, warn:

She asked him to speak more quietly.

I told her not to leave the room until I came back.

3. Verb + object + infinitive without to:

Make and let are followed by an object + infinitive without to:

My mother made me wear the most awful clothes.

She let me stay out later than most of my friends though.

4. Verb + -ing form

These verbs are followed by the –ing form of the second verb:

avoid can’t help can’t stand consider deny enjoy

feel like finish give up hate imagine keep like love

mind practise prefer put off suggest

encourage recommend forbid permit allow advise

We can group some of these verbs like this:

  • Like and dislike verbs: like, love, mind, can’t stand, enjoy, hate, prefer:

I don’t like getting up early.

  • Time verbs: start, stop, continue, begin, put off:

I began taking singing lessons as a child.

5. Verbs that can take to + infinitive or –ing form

Some verbs – like, love, begin, start, continue – can be followed by either the infinitive or the

-ing form.

I like sailing. / I like to sail.

She began having lessons. / She began to have lessons.

With some verbs, different meanings are expressed through these two structures:

Verb

+ to + infinitive

+ -ing form

go on

They went on to talk about their travel arrangements. (They did something new.)

They went on talking after the waiter brought the bill. (They continued doing the same thing.)

need

I need to repair my washing machine. (I will do the job.)

My washing machine needs repairing. (Someone else will do the job.)

remember / forget

I remembered to buy the milk. (I remembered and then I bought the milk.)

I remember buying the milk. (I bought the milk and now I remember doing it.)

stop

He stopped to talk to me. (He stopped in order to talk to me.)

He’s stopped talking to me. (He’s not talking to me any more.)

try

I’m trying to lose weight. (I’m trying something difficult.)

I’m trying eating just fruit for breakfast. (I’m trying something new.)

6. Sense verbs: hear, see, feel, notice

These verbs can either be followed by the infinitive without to or the –ing form but there is a difference in meaning. Compare:

I heard a dog bark, and then a car started and drove off. (I heard the whole of the barking.)

I heard a dog barking as I went past the house. (I heard part of the barking.)

7. Other points

  • With some of these verbs there is a choice of negative with different meanings. Compare:

I didn’t ask him to leave (I didn’t ask him, but he left) and I asked him not to leave (I said, ‘Please don’t leave.’).

  • We use the –ing form after a preposition: We talked about starting earlier.

/from Developing Grammar in Context, Mark Nettle, Diana Hopkins/

Speaking 1 ROLEPLAYA Crime Report’

Work in groups of four. There was an armed raid on a security van outside Barclays Bank, Newtown, today. A reporter is interviewing three witnesses.

Student A Mr. Clarke, a reporter

Interview the three witnesses (PC Chris Green; Liz Leigh, a secretary; and Kevin Billings, a hospital porter). From their accounts prepare a report of the crime, giving the facts and quoting the witnesses where relevant.

Before the interview, you made the notes below to help you.

  • when/happen

  • where/you

  • what/you do

  • how many robbers

  • what/they/look like

  • what/they/do

  • any other details

Student B PC Chris Green

You took part in chasing the robbers. Tell the reporter what you saw/heard/felt, answer his questions, giving the following details:

  • about 11.17 am/hear on our car radio/ security van/ hijack/as it/unload at Barclays Bank in Albion Road

  • immediately rush to the scene/ just in time to see/the security guards/lock into their own van by two men in grey balaclavas

  • they/leap into a white Ford Escort/ drop at least two bags

  • there/be/a third man behind the wheel/ they/drive off at great speed

  • we/ give chase/ but the guy in the back/start/ shoot at us

  • we/ unarmed/can’t/return the shots

  • one shot/ narrowly miss PC Dixon, the radio operator/ as they/ turn a corner/another shot /hit me in the right leg

  • I only just managed/ stop the car/ pull over to the kerb

  • I/not remember anything after that — I/black out

Student C Liz Leigh, a secretary

You witnessed the robbery. Tell the reporter what you saw/heard/felt, answer his questions, giving the following details:

  • I/come out of the bank/ put my money into my purse/ when I/hear this crash

  • it /just after 11.00/because I/slip out of the office in my coffee break

  • I/look up/see this white car/crash into the front of the security van

  • three men/get out

  • two of them/wear balaclavas/ but they/young

  • one/wear jeans/ the other/wear/a black leather jacket/ trainers

  • I/not get a good look at the third one/I/back into the doorway of the bank

  • they/yell, 'Get out! get out!' at the driver of the van/he obviously/not move fast enough/ they/open the door/drag him out/hold a gun at his head/while he/open the back of the van

  • they/go wild/shove him and his partner in the back/while they/grab at the bags of money

  • there/ bags of money all over the street

  • they/hear the police siren/start/scream at each other, 'Get a move on!'/drop even more money about the place

  • I/ terrified/ they/notice me/ point the gun at me

  • when the police/arrive/they/drive off

  • I think I/hear some shots from down the street

  • I/ stunned/I/get the number of the car

  • it/B180 VHS

Student D Kevin Billings, a hospital porter

You saw the robbers. Tell the reporter what you saw/heard/felt, answer his questions, giving the following details:

  • I/not know/what/happen

  • I/think/they/ make a film at first

  • I/come round the corner/ this fellow/barge into me/ knock me over

  • he/carry a shotgun/he/fire it into the air/at the same time shout, 'Keep down or I'll shoot you!'

  • he/in his forties/graying/he/have a Scottish accent

  • that's when I/realize/it/not a film

  • I/really think/I/die

  • He/keep his foot on top of me/while his mates/rush past into a car

  • I/have my head down on the pavement

  • I/can't see anything/I/keep/expect a final shot in the head

  • I/hear sirens/ doors/bang/ tyres/screech/ they were gone

  • I/hear shots/fire then, but down the road. Two, I think.

  • I/feel really lucky/be alive.'

/Adapted from Headway English Course. Advanced Workbook. John and Liz Soars/

Reading Crime and Criminals

Pre-reading task

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