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2. Word-formation. Productive ways: affixation, conversion, compounding, shortening. (Словотвір. Продуктивні способи словотвору: афіксація, конверсія, словоскладання, скорочення).

Word-formation. Is branch of science of l-ge, which studies patterns on which l-ge forms new lexical items (new unities, new words). It’s process of forming words by combining root & affixal morphemes. 2 major groups of word formation:

1) Words formed as grammatical syntagmas, combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding is joining together 2 or more stems “headache, heartbreak”, affixation, conversion “work – to work”, and back-formation (edit<editor))

2) Words, which are not grammatical syntagmas, which are not made up of full linguistic signs (blending, clipping)

Common for both groups is that a new word is based on synchronic relationship between morphemes.

Affixation. Affix is morpheme that is attached to base morpheme as root or stem, to form word. Affixes may be derivational, like -ness and pre-, or inflectional\functional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. Affixes are divided into several types, depending on their position with reference to the root:

-Prefixes (attached before another morpheme) undo prefix + root. A prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. Prefixes are bound morphemes (they cannot occur as independent words). Etymological cl-on: native (a-, be-, over-, under-) & borrowed (il-, im-, de-, poly-, anti-); m-ng: negative m-ng (un-,im-, dis-), quantitative m-ng (mono-, poly-super-), completion of the action (over-, under-); change the part of speech little-belittle, large-enlarge;

-Suffixes (attached after another morpheme) looking root + suffix. A suffix is a letter or group of letters added at the end of a word to make a new word. Part forming cl-on: noun-f-ng (-age, -ship, -ism, -ist), adj-f-ng (-ful, -less, -y, -ish), verb-f-ng (-ize,

-ate, -fy, -en), adv-f-ng (-ly, -ward), num-f-ng (-th, -teen, -ty), etymological cl-on native (-dom, -ed, -en,-ish,-y) & borrowed (L

-able\ible, -ant\ent; G –ism, -ist, -ic, Fr –age, -ance\ence).

-Infixes (affixes placed within the w, traces of nasal infix in the pres tense of some IE verbs (stand))

Conversion. Conversion is derivational process where item changes its word-class without addition of affix. Conversion is particularly common in English because basic form of nouns and verbs is identical in many cases. It’s curious and attractive subject because it has wide field of action: all gram. categories can undergo conversion to more than one word-form, it is compatible with other word-formation processes, and it has no demonstrated limitations. The meaning is perfectly comprehensible and speaker can rapidly fill meaningful gap in his language or use fewer words. The major cases of conversion are from noun to verb (eye-to eye, dog-to dog) and from verb to noun (to play-play). Conversion from adjective to verb (clean-to clean) and from adj to n (rich-the rich) are also common, but it has lower ratio. Conversion may be combined with other word-b-ng processed, such as composition. Attributive phrases like block list, pin point, stone wall form the basis of such firmly established verbs as to blacklist, to pinpoint, to stonewall. The same pattern is used in nonce-words such as to my-dear, to my-love. Semantic associations: 1.The noun is the name of a tool or implement, the verb denotes an action performed by the tool: to hammer, to nail, to pin, to brush. 2.The noun is the name of an animal, the verb denotes an action or aspect of behaviour considered typical of this animal: to dog, to wolf, to monkey.3. The name of a part of the human body — an ac tion performed by it: to hand, to leg (sl.), to eye, to elbow. 4. The name of a profession or occupation — an activity typical of it: to nurse, to cook, to maid, to groom. 5. The name of a place — the process of occupying the place or of putting smth./smb. in it (to room, to house, to place, to table, to cage).6.The name of a container — the act of putting smth. within the container (to can, to bottle, to pocket).7. The name of a meal — the process of taking it (to lunch, to supper).

Compounds. This type of word-building, in which new words are produced by combining two or more stems English compounds have one uniting stress (usually on 1st component), e.g. hard-cover, best-seller. There are 2 characteristic features of English compounds: a) Both components in English compound are free stems, e.g. «a green-house» and «a green house». b) English compounds have 2-stem pattern, e.g. middle-of-the-road, up-and-doing etc. 2-stem pattern distinguishes English compounds from German ones. Classification of compounds:1. Accor. to parts of speech: noun (baby-moon); adj. (free-for-all); verb (to baby-sit); adv. (headfirst); prep. (within); num. (55).2. According to way components are joined together: neutral, which are formed by joining together 2 stems without any joining morpheme (to windowshop); morphological where components are joined by linking element: «o» or «i» or «s» (sportsman); syntactical where components are joined by means of form-word stems (here-and-now). 3. According to their structure: compound words proper which consist of 2 stems (go-go, tip-top); derivational compounds where besides stems we have affixes (ear-minded); compound words consisting of 3 or more stems (singer-songwriter); compound-shortened words (VJ-day, motocross).

Shortening (Contraction). This comparatively new way of word-building has achieved high degree of productivity. Shortenings (contracted words) are produced in 2 different ways. The 1st is to make new word from syllable of original word. The latter may lose its beginning (as in phone made from telephone), its ending (as in hols from holidays) or both beginning and ending (as in flu from influenza).The 2nd way of shortening is to make new word from initial letters of word group: B.B.C. from British Broadcasting Corporation. This type called initial shortenings. They are found not only among formal words also among colloquialisms and slang. The history of American okay seems to be rather typical and was supposed to stand for all correct. Onomatopoeia is a deliberate use of words or combinations of words whose sounds produce an imitation of a natural sound, such as animal noises like "oink" or "meow", or suggesting its source object, such as "boom", "zoom", "click", "bunk", "clang", "buzz", or "bang". It is often based on and combined with alliteration. Reduplication is a morphological process by which the root or stem of a word, or part of it, is repeated. Reduplication is used in inflections to convey a grammatical function, such as plurality, intensification, etc., and in lexical derivation to create new words. It is often used when a speaker adopts a tone more "expressive" or figurative than ordinary speech and is also often, but not exclusively, iconic in meaning. There are various categories of this: rhyming, exact and ablaut (vowel substitution). Examples, are respectively, harum-scarum\ hocus-pocus, wee-wee\ blah-blah\ bye-bye and zig-zag\ ping-pong\ tip-top.

3. Word-formation. Non-productive ways: back-formation, blending, sound-imitation, sound interchange, change of stress. (Словотвір. Непродуктивні способи словотвору: зворотне словотворення, зрощення, звуконаслідування, чергування звуків, зміна наголосу).

Word-formation. Is branch of science of l-ge, which studies patterns on which l-ge forms new lexical items (new unities, new words). It’s process of forming words by combining root & affixal morphemes. 2 major groups of word formation:

1) Words formed as grammatical syntagmas, combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding is joining together 2 or more stems “headache, heartbreak”, affixation, conversion “work – to work”, and back-formation (edit<editor))

2) Words, which are not grammatical syntagmas, which are not made up of full linguistic signs (blending, clipping)

Common for both groups is that a new word is based on synchronic relationship between morphemes.

Back-formations and blends. Back-formation (also called reversion) is a term borrowed from diachronic linguistics. It denotes the derivation of new words by subtracting a real or supposed affix from existing words through misinterpretation of their structure. Blends are words formed from a word-group or two synonyms. In blends two ways of word-building are combined : abbreviation and composition. Back-formations and blends are becoming increasingly popular. Back-formation is reverse of affixation, being analogical creation of new word from existing word falsely assumed to be its derivative. Ex., verb “to edit” been formed from noun “editor” and similarly verbs automate, escalate are backformed from nouns automation, escalation.

Blends fall into 2 groups: (1) coalescences, such as “bash” from “bang” and “smash” and (2) telescoped forms, such as “motorcade” from “motor cavalcade.” In 1st group are words clash, from clack and crash. To 2nd group belong dormobiles, or dormitory automobiles. Simple shortenings, such as “ad” for “advertisement,” have risen in status. They are listed in dictionaries side by side with their full forms. Among such fashionable abbreviations are exam, gym, lab, lib, tech.

Sound imitation – words are made by imitating different links of sounds that may be produced by animals, birds…bark – лаять, mew – мяукатьsome names of animals, birds & insects are made by SI coo-coo – кукушка, crow – ворона.

To glide, to slip are supposed to convey the very sound of the smooth easy movement over a slippery surface.

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