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5.Категорія способу в англійській мові. Дійсний, наказовий та умовний способи. (Category of mood in English . Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive).

Mood:

Mood in English grammar represents a set of verb forms which are used to indicate the state of reality or being. These are used in Indo-European languages in addition to the tenses. There are different types of moods but four of them are mostly used. There are two categories of moods. They are:

Realis moods: These indicate whether something belongs to a case or not.

Irrealis moods: These indicate whether something is not the case. The cases include necessity, possibility, requirement, factual reasoning.

In English verbs there are four moods majorly: indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and infinitive.

Mood is the form of the verb through which we can express our mood or manner of thought.

Indicative Mood:

This mood expresses an assertion, denial, or question:

Delhi is the capital of India.

Nonliving things cannot respond to stimuli.

Have you done with eating?

Imperative Mood:

This mood shows command, prohibition, entreaty, or advice:

Don’t eat inside this room.

Be cautious!

Subjunctive Mood:

This mood indicates doubt or something opposite to fact. People use indicative mood most of the time, when “mixed subjunctive” makes use of helping verbs:

If I should see him, I will tell him.

Americans are more likely to say:

If I see him, I will tell him.

The verb may be able to be used to express a wish:

May you have many more birthdays.

The verb were can also indicate the use of the

Subjunctive:

If I were you, I wouldn’t keep dogs in home.

If he were rich, we’d be in better economic condition.

Infinitive Mood:

This mode indicates an action or state without reference to any subject and it does not indi­cate time. This may cause confusion with the infinitive form as a fully-functioning verb.

The meaning of “infinitive,” here means the basic form of the verb with “to” in front of it: to go, to sing, to walk, to speak.

Verbs in the infinitive mood usually have the forms ending in –ed and –ing. Verbs in the infinitive mood are not used as verbs, but used as other parts of speech.

For example:

He is an antique to be visited. (“to be visited” is an infinitive phrase used as an adjective, the equivalent of “visited” It describes the noun “antique.”)

They came to kill you. (“to kill you” is an infinitive phrase used as an adverb to tell why they came.)

6.Просте речення як монопредикативна конструкція. Актуальне членування речення. (Actual division of the sentence).

or functional perspective of a sentence, a linguistic term meaning the division of a sentence based on its expression of a concrete meaning in the context of a given situation.

Actual division breaks up a sentence into that which is considered to be known or easily understood (the theme, or point of departure), that which is told about the theme (the rheme, or kernel), and the elements of transition. For example, “He (theme) proved to be (transition) a splendid teacher (rheme).” Actual division of a sentence is presented as an alternative to the formal division of a sentence into grammatical elements. If the theme precedes the rheme, the order of words in the sentence is called objective; if the opposite is true, the order is subjective. For example, “Father (theme) is coming (rheme)” if the father is expected, but “Father (rheme) is coming (theme)” if footsteps have been heard. The actual division of a sentence is expressed by word order, intonation, and other means.

Simple sentence. The finite verb, expressing the basic predicative meaning of the sentence and performing the function of the predicate, and the subject combined with it form the so-called “predicative line” of the sentence. On the basis of predicative line presentation, sentences are divided into monopredicative (with one predicative line expressed), i.e. simple, and polypredicative (with two or more predicative lines expressed), i.e. composite and semi-composite.

Traditionally, the simple sentence has been studied primarily from the point of view of its grammatical, or nominative division: the content of the situational event reflected by the sentence, which includes a certain process as its dynamic center, the agent of the process, the objects of the process, various conditions and circumstances of the process, form the basis of the traditional syntactic division of the sentence into its nominative (positional) parts, or members of the sentence. In other words, each notional part expresses a certain semantic component or “role”[1] in the situation; in the structure of the sentence, they perform the function of modifying either each other or the sentence in general.

The syntactic functions or the members of the sentence are traditionally divided into principal (main) and secondary. The principal parts of the sentence are the subject and the predicate, which modify each other: the subject is the “person” modifier of the predicate, and the predicate is the “process” modifier of the subject; they are interdependent. The secondary parts are: the object – a substance modifier of the predicate; the attribute – a quality modifier of substantive parts, either the subject or the object; the adverbial modifier – a quality modifier of the predicate; the apposition – a substance modifier of the subject; the parenthesis (parenthetical enclosure) - a detached speaker-bound modifier either of one of the nominative parts of the sentence or of the sentence in general; the address (addressing enclosure) – a modifier of the destination of the whole sentence; the interjection (interjectional enclosure) – an emotional modifier.

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