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3.Час і аспект як граматичні категорії дієслова в англійській мові. (Tense and aspect as grammatical categories of the English verb).

The category of tense in English. Tense opposition. Absolute and relative meanings of English tense-forms.

The category of tense is a verbal category that reflects the objective category of time. The essential characteristic of the category of tense is that it relates the time of the action, event or state of affairs referred to in the sentence to the time of the utterance (the time of the utterance being 'now ' or the present moment). The tense category is realized through the oppositions. The binary principle of oppositions remains the basic one in the correlation of the forms that represent the grammatical category of tense. The present moment is the main temporal plane of verbal actions.

Generally speaking, the major tense-distinction in English is undoubtedly that which is traditionally described as an opposition of past::present. But this is best regarded as a contrast of past:: non-past. Quite a lot of scholars do not recognize the existence of future tenses, because what is described as the 'future' tense in English is realized by means of auxiliary verbs will and shall. Although it is undeniable that will and shall occur in many sentences that refer to the future, they also occur in sentences that do not. And they do not necessarily occur in sentences with a future time reference. That is why future tenses are often treated as partly modal.

The category of aspect. Aspect opposition

The category of aspect is a linguistic representation of the objective category of Manner of Action. It is realized through the opposition Continuous: Non-Continuous (Progressive::Non-Progressive). The realization of the category of aspect is closely connected with the lexical meaning of verbs.

There are some verbs in English that do not normally occur with progressive aspect, even in those contexts in which the majority of verbs necessarily take the progressive form. Among the so-called ‘non-progressive’ verbs are think, understand, know, hate, love, see, taste, feel, possess, own, etc. The most striking characteristic that they have in common is the fact that they are ‘stative’ - they refer to a state of affairs, rather than to an action, event or process. It should be observed, however, that all the ‘non-­progressive' verbs take the progressive aspect under particular circumstances. As the result of internal transposition verbs of non-progressive nature can be found in the Continuous form: Now I'm knowing you. Generally speaking the Continuous form has at least two semantic features - duration (the action is always in progress) and definiteness (the action is always limited to a definite point or period of time).

4. Категорія стану дієслів в англійській мові. Проблема середнього стану. (Voice in the system of the English verb. The problem of medial voices).

The category of voice. Voice opposition. The number of voices in English

In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is said to be in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.

For example,

The cat ate the mouse

is active, but

The mouse was eaten by the cat

is passive.

In a transformation from an active voice sentence to an equivalent passive voice construction, the subject and the direct object switch places. The direct object is promoted to subject, and the subject is demoted to an optional complement. In the above examples, the mouse is the direct object in the active voice version, the subject in the passive version. The subject of the active voice version, the cat, becomes part of a prepositional phrase in the passive version of the sentence, and could be left out entirely. In the English language, the passive voice is periphrastic; that is, it is not a single word form, but rather a construction making use of other word forms. Specifically, it is made up of a form of the auxiliary verb to be and a past participle of the main verb. In other languages, such as Latin, the passive voice is simply marked on the verb by inflection: the passive voice uses different verb endings than the active voice.

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