Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
ШПОРИ ВСЕ!!!.doc
Скачиваний:
10
Добавлен:
09.09.2019
Размер:
321.02 Кб
Скачать

Articulatery and physiological classification of e vowels. According to the stability of articulation.

The stability of articulation is the principle of vow classification which is not singled out by British and American phoneticians. It is the principle of the stability of the shape, volume and the size of the mouth resonator. According to this principle v are subdivided into:

1.monophtongs-simple v

2.diftongs-complex v

1)English mon-gs are pronounced with or less stable lip, tongue, mouth walls position. They are [ I: i e эе a: o 3: u u: Λ o: ə ].

2)Definition of a diphthong as a single-sound is based on the instability of the second element. The first element of a diphthongs is the nuclear, the second is the glide. A diphthong can be falling, when the nucleous is stronger than the glide, and rising, when the glide is stronger than the nucleous. When both elements are equal such diphthongs are called level. Eng. Diph-s are falling with the glide towards:[i]-[ei ai oi]

Dif-s [ei eu oi ai au]-are called closing dif-s, dif-s[3e ie ue]-are called centring, acoording to the articulation of the 2 element.

There are 2 v in English[I: u:] that may have a diphthongal glide where they have full-length (in open syllables) and before lenis or nasal cons (bi:-bi:d-bi:n.). Russian v [э о] are diphtongoids.

  1. The articulatory classification of the English consonants. (Класифікація приголосних англійської мови за артикуляцією.)

    Articulatory and physiological classification of English consonants. Accord to the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation, active organs of speech and the place of abstraction.

Rus phenetitians classify con-s according to the following principles:

1work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation

2active organs of speech and the place of obstruction

1. Accoring to the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation cons-s are subdevided into voiced and voiceless. Voiced: [b, d, g]; voiceless: [p, t, k,]. The force of exhalation and the degree of muscular tension are greater in the production of voiceless cons-s. Therefore they are called by the Latin word fortis, which means strong, energetic. Voiced cons-s are called lenis, which means soft, weak. Because the force of exhalation and the degree of muscular tension in their articulation are weaker, e.g.fortis: [p] – pipe, [t] – tight, Lenis: [b] – Bible, [d] – died.

The Eng cons-s [h, m, n, h, l, w, j, r] don’t enter into fortis-lenis oppositions.

2) According to the position of the of the active organs of speech consonants are classified into: labial, lingual, glottal.

Lab cons – s are subdivided into:

a) Bylabial; b) Labio-dental.

a) are produced with both lips, they are the Eng [p, b, m, w], the Rus [п, п`, б, б`, м, м`].

b) are articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth. They are The E [f, v], the R [ф, ф`, в, в`].

Lingual cons – s are subdivided into:

  1. forelingual; b)mediolingual; c)backlingual

a) are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue, acc to the position of the tip of the tongue they maybe: dorsal, apical, cacuminal. Acc to the place of obstruction forelingual cons – s may be: interdental, dental, alveolar, post – alveolar, palato – alveolar.

Interdent cons – s are articulated with the tip of the tongue projected between the teeth [ð, Ө]. Dental cons – s are articulated with the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth, the R [т, т`, д, д`, с, с`, з, з`, л, л`, ц]. Alveolar cons – s are articulated with the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth ridge, e.g. the E [t, d, s, n, l]. Post – alveolar cons – s with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the back part of the teeth ridge, e.g. [r]. Polato – alveolar cons – s are articul with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the teeth ridge, the front part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate – two places of articulation, or forci, e.g. the E [t∫, dЗ ,∫ ,З] and the R [ш, ш`, ж, ч].

b) Mediolingual are produced with the front part of the tonque. They are always palatal. palatal consonants are articulated with the front part of the tonque raised high to the hard palate, [j].

c) Backlingual consonants are called velar, they are produced with the back part of the tonque raised towards the soft palate [k,g,h,], [х,х’, г,’].

The glottal consonant [h] is articulated in the glottis.

Тут вы можете оставить комментарий к выбранному абзацу или сообщить об ошибке.

Оставленные комментарии видны всем.