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Теоретична фонетика

  1. The articulatory classification of the English vowels. (Класифікація англійських голосних за артикуляцією.) the main principles of all current articulatory classifications of vow.

2 main principles of all currant articulatory classifications of vowels are based on the movements and positions of the tongue. In describing and classifying vowels the following parts of the tongue are referred to because of their great importance, as resonance modifiers:

1 the front of the tongue, which lays opposite the hard palate

2 the back of the tongue, which lays opposite the soft palate

3 the center of the tongue, which is the region where the front and the back meet.

The tip and blade of the tongue don’t play separate roles in vowel production. The complex movement of the tongue provides an articulatory bases for classifying vowels:

1) according to the horizontal movement of the tongue

2) according to the simultaneously vertical movements of the tongue

Articulatory and physiological classification of e vowels.

I The main effects of lip rounding on the shape of the mouth:

a) to enlarge the oral cavity b) to diminish the size of the oral cavity.

According to the position of the lips vowels are classified into:

a) rounded

b) unrounded.

The E. rounded vowels are: <u>, <u:>, < o; o:>. The Russian vowels are protruded vowels –o, -y. The general pattern is that the front and open vowels are articulated with spread to neutral lip-position while back vowels have rounded lips.

II According to the position of the tongue. It can move forward and backward, it may be raised and low in the mouth cavity. Rus. scientists divide V. according to the

a)horizontal movements of the tongue.

b)vertical movements of the tongue.

a) When the bulk of the tongue moves backwards and the back part of the tongue is raised highest towards the hard palate, front V. are produced.

They are subdivided into:

- fully front –[i:,e,эе]

-front retracted втягивать [i]

In the production of centr. V. the tongue is almost flat. Central V. are [3:, ə, Λ].

b)According to the vertical movements of the tongue v. are subd-ed into:

  • high [I:, I, u:, u], Rus. [и, у, ы];

  • mid-open or half-open: [e, ə:, e(u), ə(a), ə], Rus. [э, о]

  • low-open: [Λ, эе, a(i), a(u), a:, о:, o(i)], Rus [a].

Each of the subclasses is subdiv. into V. of narrow variation, and v. of broad var-on:

- high narrow variation [i:],[u:]; Rus. [ы, и, у]

-high broad variation [i], [u]

- mid narrow variation [e, ə:, e(u)], Rus. [э]

- mid broad variation [eə, o: ə], Rus [o]

- law narrow var [Λ, o(i)]

-law broad variation [a:, o, эе, a(i), a(u)] Rus. [a]

The rus. [э] is on the boarderline between narrow and broad midvowels., [o] is on the boaderline between mid-open and open.

Articulatery and physiological classification of e vowels. According to the degree of tenseness, length.

Accord to the degree of tenseness traditionally long vowels are defined as tense (напряженные) and short as lex (ослаблен). The tense and lex were introduced by Sweet. When the muscles of the lips, tongue, chicks and the back walls of the pharynx are tense, the vowels produced can be characterized as tense. When tense organs are relatively relaxed, lex vowels are produced. The Rus v – s are not differentiated according to the tenseness.

Eng v- s can be checked and unchecked. Checked v – s are those which occur in stressed closed syllables, ending in a fortis voiceless cons, e.g. [e] in bed, letter. The checked v – s are pronounced without any lessening in the force of utterance towards their end. Unchecked v – s are those, which occur terminally or are followed by a lenis voiced cons, e.g. [i:]. There are no checked v – s in Rus. All of them are unchecked.

According to the length Eng vowels are subdivided into long and short. Vowel length may depend on:

1position of the vowel in a word,2word stress,3the number of syllables in a word

4the character of the syllable structure,5sonority

1. positions of dependants of length can be illustrated by the following example [bi: - bid – bit]. In the terminal конец position a vowel is the longest it shortness before a voiced consonant, it is the shortest before a voiceless consonant.

2. a vowel is longer in a stressed syllable than in unstressed one: fOrecast - fourcAst.(прогноз – предсказывать погоду). In the verb [o] is shorter than in the noun, though it maybe pronounced with [o] equally long.

3. if we compare a one syllable word and a word consisting of more than one syllable, we may observe that similar vowels are shorter in a polysyllabic word. Thus in the word verse (стих) [3:] is longer than in university.

4. In words with V,CV,CCV type of syllable the vowel length is greater than in words with VC,CVC, CCVC type of syllable. Ex. [3:] is longer in err (ошибаться) (V type) than in Earn (VC type).

5. vowels of low sonority are longer than vowels of greater sonority. It is so because the speaker makes more affort to produce greater auditory effect, while pronouncing vowels of lower sonority thus making them longer. Ex. [i] is longer than [o], [i:] is longer than [a:]

Besides vowel length depends on the tempo of speech.

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