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7. General characteristics of the verb as a part of speech. Grammatically relevant subclasses of verbs (transitive/intransitive, terminative/non- terminative).

Verb is a part of speech that denotes an action,

It has the following grammatical categories:

- person - aspect

- number - voice

- tense - mood

These categories may be expressed by means of affixes, innaflexions (change of the route vowel) and by form words. According to the functional verbs perform in the sentence; they can form finite (особові) and non-finite forms. The finite form can be used as the predicate of the sentence. The non-finite can’t be used as the predicate of the sentence, they are called “verbals” (Participle I, II, Infinitive, Gerund).

According to the morphological structure verbs can be divided into:

- simple ; - derivative (rewrite, undo) ; - compound (day-dream, brain-beat) ; - composite (give up, sit down).

The basic forms of the verb are:

- the infinitive ; - the past indefinite ; - the participle II

speak – spoke – spoken.

According to the syntactical function verbs are divided into:

notional verbs – always have a lexical meaning of their own and have an independent syntactical function in the sentence (may be used as a simple predicate).

auxiliary verbs – have only grammatical function used in analytical form.link verbs – which have lost their lexical meaning to some extend and are used in compound nominal predicate.

A verb can be

- transitive which can take:

a) a direct object

b)direct and indirect object.

c) prepositional object

intransitive verbs can’t take a direct object.

Semantically all verbs can be divided into:

- terminative

- non-terminative

a) Terminative verbs amply a limit beyond which an action can’t continue. (to break).

b) Non-terminative denote an action which don’t amply any limit. (to love, to live, to posses).

c) Verbs of double lexical character/aspect. These verbs in certain context have a terminative meaning, and in other – a derivative.

8. The noun as a part of speech. Grammatically relevant classes of nouns. Morphological, semantic and syntactic properties of the noun.

The noun is the central lexical unit of language. It is the main nominative unit of speech. As any other part of speech, the noun can be characterised by three criteria: semantic (the meaning), morphological (the form and grammatical catrgories) and syntactical (functions, distribution). Semantic features of the noun. The noun possesses the grammatical meaning of thingness, substantiality. According to different principles of classification nouns fall into several subclasses:

  1. According to the type of nomination they may be proper and common;

  2. According to the form of existence they may be animate and inanimate. Animate nouns in their turn fall into human and non-human.

  3. According to their quantitative structure nouns can be countable and uncountable.

This set of subclasses cannot be put together into one table because of the different principles of classification.

Morphological features of the noun. In accordance with the morphological structure of the stems all nouns can be classified into: simple, derived ( stem + affix, affix + stem – thingness); compound ( stem+ stem – armchair ) and composite ( the Hague ). The noun has morphological categories of number and case. Some scholars admit the existence of the category of gender.

Syntactic features of the noun. The noun can be used un the sentence in all syntactic functions but predicate. Speaking about noun combinability, we can say that it can go into right-hand and left-hand connections with practically all parts of speech. That is why practically all parts of speech but the verb can act as noun determiners. However, the most common noun determiners are considered to be articles, pronouns, numerals, adjectives and nouns themselves in the common and genitive case.

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