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4. Polysemy in English. Homonyms and their classifications. (Полісемія в англійській мові. Омоніми та їх класифікації).

Polysemy. The word «polysemy» means «plurality of meanings» it exists only in the language, not in speech. A word which has more than one meaning is called polysemantic. Different meanings of a polysemantic word may come together due to the proximity of notions which they express. There are some words in the language which are monosemantic, such as most terms, /synonym, molecule, bronchites/, some pronouns /this, my, both/, numerals. There are two processes of the semantic development of a word: radiation and concatination. In cases of radiation the primary meaning stands in the centre and the secondary meanings proceed out of it like rays. Each secondary meaning can be traced to the primmary meaning. E.g. in the word «face» the primary meaning denotes «the front part of the human head» Connected with the front position the meanings: the front part of a watch, the front part of a building, the front part of a playing card were formed. Connected with the word «face» itself the meanings : expression of the face, outward appearance are formed. In cases of concatination secondary meanings of a word develop like a chain. In such cases it is difficult to trace some meanings to the primary one. E.g. in the word «crust» the primary meaning «hard outer part of bread» developed a secondary meaning «hard part of anything /a pie, a cake/», then the meaning »harder layer over soft snow» was developed, then «a sullen gloomy person», then «impudence» were developed. Here the last meanings have nothing to do with the primary ones. In such cases homonyms appear in the language. It is called the split of polysemy. Different meanings of 1 and same word are closely interrelated. Polysemy is a result of: 1. Shifts in application (adj. red); 2. Specialization (partner - basic meaning; type of relationship btw 2 or more people (business partner, partner in crime); 3. Metaphorical extension (fundamental feature of any l-ge) (hands of person ~ hands of clock). Polysemy has been complicated by tendency of words to pick up meanings from other dialects, l-ges and slang. New and old meanings become interrelated, form hierarchy. They have some common semantic features which preserve integrity of word.

Homonyms. Hyponymy. Hyponymy is a semantic relation of inclusion. (vehicle: taxi, car, tram) The hyponymic rel-ions may be viewed as a hierarchical rel-ions btw the m-ng of the general & the indiv terms. The gen term is sometimes referred to classifier\hyporonym & serves to describe the lex-gr groups. The ind ref to as hyponyms, they entail the m-ng to the gen term in add to their indiv m-ngs, which disting them from each other. Types: nouns – mironymy, verbs – lex entailment: temporal (study>graduate)& traponymy (to do smth in a certain manner link>walk), backward opposition (aim: hit\miss) & casual relations. Problems: 1. diff cl-ons (person); 2. diff lang. Homonyms are words which is identical in sound and spelling or at least in one of these aspects, but different in their meanings: e.g. bank (a shore) – bank (an institution). English vocabulary is rich in such pairs. If synonyms and antonyms can be regarded as treasure of l-ge’s expressive resources, homonyms may lead to confusion or misunderstanding. But this characteristic makes them one of most important sources of humor. Homonyms which are same in sound and spelling are termed homonyms proper. Homophones are homonyms which are same in sound but different in spelling: e.g. bean (боб) - been (3 to be) Homographs are words which are the same in spelling, but different in sound: e.g. lead ([li:d] управлять) – lead ([led] cвинец)

Classification of homonyms: According to Professor Smirnizkii they are subdivided into full homonyms and partial homonyms. Full lexical homonyms are words which represent same category of speech: e.g. match (матч) – match (спичка). Partial homonyms are subdivided into 3 subgroups: 1) Simple lexico-gram. partial homonyms are words which belong to same category of part of speech and have one identical form: e.g. lay (infinitive) – lay (Past Indefinite of the verb to lie). 2) Complex lexico-gram. partial homonyms are words of different categories of parts of speech which have one identical form. e.g. rose (роза) – rose (Past Indefinite of the verb to rise). 3) Partial lexical homonyms are words of the same category of part of speech which are identical only in their corresponding forms: e.g. to can (консервировать) – can (modal verb).

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