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Articulatory and physiological classification of English consonants. Accord to the manner of noise production and the type of obstruction, position of the soft palate.

Трахтеров, Торсуев, Васильев and other phoneticians consider the principal of consonant classification according to the manner of noise production and the type of obstruction to be one of the most important.

First of all they suggest a classification according to the manner of noise production from the viewpoint of the closure (преграда). Complete (смычные) closure then occlusive (взрывные) [p,b,t,d,k,g] and nasal consonants [m,n, h]are produced, incomplete (щелевые) closure, then constrictive (фрикативные) consonants are produced:[f,v,ɵ,ð], [ф,в,с,з], the combination of the 2 closures, then affricates are produced [t∫, dЗ] [ц, ч], intermittent (прерывистый) closure then rolled (дрожащие) consonants are produced. Rus [р,р’]

a) according to the principal of voice or noise prevalence, rus. phoneticians suggest a subdivision of the group of occlusives (взрывные) and the group of constrictives (фрикативные) into noise sounds and sonorants. Noise occlusive sonorants are called nasals.

The group of the occlusive-constrictive consonants consists of noise sounds [t∫, dЗ] rus [ч,ц].

b) Rus phoneticians subdivide the rolled, oclussive, constrictive or clussive-constrictive consonants into unicentral and bicentral, according to the number of noise producing or foci.

c) According to the shape of the narrowing constrictive cons and affricates are subdivided into sounds with flat narrowing and round narrowing. The cons / f,v,ð,Ө,∫/ are pronounced with the flat narrowing; the cons / s,z, w, ц/ are pronounced with the round narrowing.

According to the position of the soft palate all cons are subdivided into oral and nasal. When the soft palate is raised and the air into the mouth cavity oral cons are produced /p,t.k,f,v/. When the soft palate is lowered and the air on its way out passes through the nasal cavity, nasal cons are produced /m,n ŋ/.

  1. English word stress: notions, types, functions. (Словесний наголос в англійській мові: поняття,типи,функції.)

Word stress (WS) can be defined as the singling out of one or more syllables in a word, which is accompanied by the change of the force of utterance, pitch of the voice, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the sound which is usually a vowel.

S-s is variable – any syl-le of a polys-c word can carry the main stress. Signals: pitch of voice (level), sonority of sound (vowel quality: strong, weak; stressed syl-s have strong v-s – pot, Tom, office, odd, man, uns-ed – weak: potato, official, addition, woman), duration in time (length – syl-s are extra long when they are prominant) – together they make syl-s sound louder. Degrees of s-s: primary, secondary (partial), weak. S-s is the comb-n of factors.

S-s may be semantically contrasted (verb – noun: contrast, present). Modify of s-s: photogragh-photographer-photographic).

Rules:1) ‘front weight’ in nouns & adj-s (have s-s on the 1-st syl-le); 2) 2 & 3-syl-le words have a prefix (not stressed), majority are verbs; 3) w-s with suf-s (unstr-ed); 4) certain suf-s cause the syl-le to be st-ed: -ive, -ient, -iant, -ial, -ion, -ic, -ous, -ish, -ify, -ible; 5) –able – doesn’t change the stress; 6) in polys-c w-ds certain suf-s cause the s-s to be placed on the 4-th syl-le fr. the end - -ary, -ator, alimony, literacy, inventory; 7) in compound w-ds – singlestressed – reading-room, music-hall; but adj-es & verbs – 2-stressed – well-bred, give in.

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