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2. Make up a plan in the form of questions.

3. Give а summary of the text according to your plan in a written form.

IV. Comprehensive skills

1. Read and remember.

1. arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) – арифметично-логічний блок

2. return Boolean truth value – обернена булева (логічна) величина

3. floating point – нефіксований десятковий знак (точка)

4. albeit – хоча

5. integer – ціле число

6. superscalar computers – суперскалярні комп’ютери

7. XOR – виключаюче «або» - логічна функція або величина

8. NOT – «не» - логічна функція або величина

* SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) — принцип комп’ютерних обчислювань, що дозволяє забезпечити паралелізм на рівні даних.

* MIMD (Mobile Internet Multimedia Device) – представляє нову категорію пристроїв, що забезпечує швидкий, універсальний та портативний широкополосний доступ.

2. Listen to the text “Arithmetic Logic Unit (alu)” and try to understand it.

3. Read these statements and answer if they are true or false?

1. The ALU is capable of performing neither arithmetic nor logic operations.

2. Computers can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation.

3. Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND, OR, XOR and NOT.

4. Superscalar computers contain multiple ALUs so that they cannot process several instructions at the same time.

5. Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often provide ALUs that can perform arithmetic operations on vectors and matrices.

4. Listen to the text once again and answer the following questions.

  1. What do the letters ALU stand for?

  2. What arithmetic operations may the particular ALU support?

  3. Can any computer be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps to perform?

  4. May an ALU also compare numbers?

  5. Do superscalar computers contain multiple ALUs to process several instructions?

V. Communicative skills

Topic for discussion: How can we store data and programs permanently? (Use additional materials).

Unit 4

Topic: Virtual memory

I. Reading skills

1. Pre-reading tasks

a) You will read a text about virtual memory of computers.

  • What do you know about virtual memory of computers?

  • How does the virtual memory influence the computer performance?

b) Read and remember the following words and word combinations used in their specialized meanings.

virtual memory віртуальна пам'ять

simultaneously одночасно

application прикладна програма

page file файл віртуальної пам’яті

file extension розширення імені файлу

performance drop погіршення робочих характеристик

slowness повільність

thrashing переповнення пам’яті

2. Read and translate the following text into Ukrainian. What is "virtual memory"?

Virtual memory is a common part of most operating systems on desktop computers. It has become so common because it provides a big benefit for users at a very low cost.

Most computers today have something like 64 or 128 megabytes of RAM (random-access memory) available for use by the CPU (central processing unit). Often, that amount of RAM is not enough to run all of the programs that most users expect to run at once. For example, if you load the Windows operating system, an e-mail program, a Web browser and word processor into RAM simultaneously, 64 megabytes is not enough to hold it all. If there were no such thing as virtual memory, your computer would have to say, "Sorry, you cannot load any more applications. Please close an application to load a new one." With virtual memory, the computer can look for areas of RAM that have not been used recently and copy them onto the hard disk. This frees up space in RAM to load the new application. Because it does this automatically, you don't even know it is happening, and it makes your computer feel like it has unlimited RAM space even though it has only 32 megabytes installed. Because hard-disk space is so much cheaper than RAM chips, virtual memory also provides a nice economic benefit.

The area of the hard disk that stores the RAM image is called a page file. It holds pages of RAM on the hard disk, and the operating system moves data back and forth between the page file and RAM. (On a Windows machine, page files have a SWP extension.)

Of course, the read/write speed of a hard drive is much slower than RAM, and the technology of a hard drive is not geared toward accessing small pieces of data at a time. If your system has to rely too heavily on virtual memory, you will notice a significant performance drop. The key is to have enough RAM to handle everything you tend to work on simultaneously. Then, the only time you "feel" the slowness of virtual memory is in the slight pause that occurs when you change tasks. When you have enough RAM for your needs, virtual memory works beautifully. When you don't, the operating system has to constantly swap information back and forth between RAM and the hard disk. This is called thrashing, and it can make your computer feel incredibly slow.

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