Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
Английский Язык_2009.doc
Скачиваний:
15
Добавлен:
04.02.2016
Размер:
267.78 Кб
Скачать

2. Read and translate the following text into Ukrainian.

Inside the system

The nerve center of a PC is the central processing unit or CPU. This unit is built into a single microprocessor chip – an integrated circuit – which executes program instructions and supervises the computer’s overall operation. The unit consists of three main parts:

i. the control unit, which examines the instructions in the user’s program, interprets each instruction and causes the circuits and the rest of the components – disc drives, monitor, etc. – to be activated to execute the functions specified;

ii. the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs mathematical calculations (+, -, etc.) and logical operations (and, or, etc.);

iii. the registers, which are high-speed units of memory used to store and control information. One of these registers is the program counter (PC) which keeps track of the next instruction to be performed in the main memory. Another is the instruction register (IR) which holds the instruction that is currently being executed.

One area where the microprocessor differs is in the amount of data – the number of bits – they can work with at a time. There are 16, 32 and 64 bit processors. The computer’s internal architecture is evolving so quickly that the new 64-bit processors are able to address 4 billion times more information than a 32-bit system.

The program and data which pass through the central processor must be loaded into the main memory (also called the internal memory) in order to be processed. Thus, when the user runs an application, the microprocessor looks for it on secondary storage devices (discs) and transfers a copy of the application into the RAM area. RAM (random access memory) is temporary, i.e. its information lost when the computer is turned off. However, the ROM section (read only memory) is permanent and contains instructions needed by the processor.

Most of today’s computers have internal expansion slots that allow users to install adapters or expansion boards. Popular adapters include high-resolution graphics boards, memory expansion boards, and internal modems.

The power and performance of a computer is partly determined by the speed of its microprocessor. A clock provides pulses at fixed intervals to measure and synchronize circuits and units. The clock speed is measured in MHz (megahertz) or GHz (gigahertz) and refers to the frequency at which pulses are emitted. For example, CPU running at 1,600 MHz (1,600 million cycles per second) will enable the computer to handle the most determining applications.

3. Find the answers to the questions:

1. What are the functions of microprocessor unit?

2. How many major parts are there in microprocessor unit?

3. What are the functions of control unit?

4. What are the functions of arithmetic logic unit?

5. What are the functions of the registers?

6. Different kinds of memory are applied in microprocessor unit, aren’t they? What is the difference between RAM and ROM?

7. What does the clock in microprocessor unit serve for?

4. Complete the sentences.

1. The nerve center of a PC is …

2. One area where the microprocessor differs is …

3. The program and data which pass through the central processor must be

loaded into …

4. Most of today’s computers have internal expansion slots …

5. A clock provides pulses …

5. Match the following English words with their Ukrainian equivalents.

Ціле число, внутрішній модем, постійна пам'ять, пам'ять з довільним доступом, розширювальна плата, реєстр, дисковід, генератор синхронізуючих імпульсів, наглядати, лічильник програма, внутрішня пам'ять.

6. True or false statements.

1. CPU is built into a disc drive which executes program instructions.

2. One of these registers is RAM which keeps track of the next instruction to be performed in the main memory.

3. The computer’s internal architecture is evolving not so quickly.

4. RAM (random access memory) is permanent and contains instructions needed by the processor.

5. The power and performance of a computer is partly determined by the speed of its microprocessor.

7. Translate from English into Ukrainian.

1. There are four steps that nearly all CPUs use in their operation: fetch, decode, execute, and writeback.

2. The first step, fetch, involves retrieving an instruction (which is represented by a number or sequence of numbers) from program memory.

3. In the decode step, the instruction is broken up into parts that have significance to other portions of the CPU.

4. After the fetch and decode steps, the execute step is performed. During this step, various portions of the CPU are connected so they can perform the desired operation.

5. The final step, writeback, simply "writes back" the results of the execute step to some form of memory.

Тут вы можете оставить комментарий к выбранному абзацу или сообщить об ошибке.

Оставленные комментарии видны всем.