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Английский Язык_2009.doc
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8. Translate from Ukrainian into English.

1. Віртуальна пам'ять – це загальна частина більшості операційних систем настільних комп'ютерів.

2. За допомогою віртуальної пам'яті комп'ютер може шукати зони оперативної пам'яті, які не використовуються, та копіювати їх на жорсткий диск.

3. Часто кількості оперативної пам'яті не вистачає для того, щоб запустити всі програми, які користувачі сподіваються використовувати одночасно.

4. Так як ємність жорсткого диску дешевше ніж чіпи оперативної пам'яті, віртуальна пам'ять також надає економічні переваги.

5. Коли у вас є достатньо оперативної пам'яті для виконання ваших задач, віртуальна пазять працює чудово.

II. Retell the text “What is ‘virtual memory’?”

III. Rendering.

1. Read the text and translate it using a dictionary. Units of memory

Bits- basic units of memory. Information is processed and stored in computers as electrical signals. A computer contains thousands of electronic circuits connected by switches that can only be in one of the possible states: ON (the current is flowing through the wire) or OFF (the current is not flowing through the wire). To represent these two conditions we use binary notation in which 1 (one) means ON and 0 means OFF. This is the only way the computer can understand anything. Everything about computers is based upon this binary process. Each 1 or 0 is called a binary digit or bit.

Bytes and characters. 1s and 0s are grouped into eight-digit codes that typically represent characters (letters, numbers and symbols). Eight bits together are called a byte. Thus, each character in a keyboard has its own arrangement of eight bits. For example, 01000001 for the letter A, 01000010 for B and 01000011 for C.

The ASCII code. The majority of computers use a standard system for the binary representation of characters. This is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, known popularly as ‘ASCII’ (pronounced ‘ask-key’). There are 256 different ways of combining 0 and 1 bits in a byte. So they can give us 256 different signals. However, the ASCII code only uses 128 bytes to represent characters.

The first 32 codes are reserved for characters such as the Return key, Tab, Escape, ect. Each letter of the alphabet, and many symbols (such as pronunciation marks), as well as the ten numbers, have ASCII representations. What makes this system powerful is that these codes are standard.

Kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes. In order to avoid astronomical figures and sums in the calculation of bytes, we use units such as kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes. One kilobyte is 1,024 bytes (2 10) and it is represented as KB, or more informally as K. One megabyte is equivalent to 1,024 KB, and one gigabyte is 1,024 MB.

We use these units (KB, MB, GB) to describe the RAM memory, the storage capacity of disks and the size of any application or document.

2. Make up a plan in the form of questions.

3. Give а summary of the text according to your plan in a written form.

IV. Comprehensive skills

1. Read and remember.

1. tiny dot - крихітна точка

2. pixel – пік сель (елемент зображення)

3. bit-mapped display- дисплей з послідовним відображенням елементів у пам’яті

4. refresh buffer- буфер зображення

5. monochrome system- монохромна система

6. color system- кольорова система

7. color palette – палітра кольорів

8. graphic adaptor – графічний адаптер (з’єднувальна деталь)

2. Listen to the text “Bits for pictures” and try to understand it.

3. Read these statements and answer if they are true or false?

1. On color systems, each pixel is a certain combination of one primary color.

2. The total number of colors which can be shown on the screen is called the color palette.

3. The size of this palette depends on the graphic adaptor.

4. The graphic adaptor is a separate video cart that converts the bits into voice signals.

5. A graphic adaptor with one-bit per primary color can generate up to 20 colors.

4. Listen to the text once again and answer the following questions.

  1. What is the name of each tiny dot on the screen of the computer?

  2. How are the images and texts formed?

  3. How does the bit-mapped display correspond with bits in the main memory of the computer?

  4. How is the area of the memory, where the bits are held, called?

  5. What is correlation between the bits and pixels on monochrome systems?

V. Communicative skills

Topic for discussion: The virtual memory is a notion of the virtual world. What notions of the virtual world could name? (Use additional materials).

Unit 5

Topic: An alternative to the computer mouse

I. Reading skills

1. Pre-reading tasks

a) You will read a text about devices alternative to the computer mouse supporting user’s interface.

  • What do you know about heptic devices?

  • Could you name some of the devices of entering data?

b) Read and remember the following words and word combinations used in their specialized meanings.

eye-tracking hardware технічне забезпечення, яке відслідковує рух очей

high-definition camera фотокамера із високою якістю розділення

novel user interface новий інтерфейс користувача

disabled users користувачі з обмеженими можливостями

able-bodied users працездатні користувачі

pinpoint точно визначити, сконцентруватися на проблемі

hot key “гарячі” клавіші

gaze-based interface інтерфейс, який базується на напрямку погляду

blink мopгати

click through клік (натискання) на посилання

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