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Министерство транспорта Российской Федерации

Федеральное агентство железнодорожного транспорта

Самарский государственный университет путей сообщения

Кафедра иностранных языков

М.В. Жесткова, с.Я. Никитина

А Н Г Л И Й С К И Й Я З Ы К

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

для студентов 1 курсa

компьютерных

специальностей

Самара 2007

УДК 420

ББК 81.2 Англ.

Рецензенты:

кандидат филологических наук,

доцент Самарского государственного университета путей сообщения

С.И. Капишникова;

кандидат технических наук,

доцент Самарского государственного университета путей сообщения

Д.К. Тюмиков.

А Английский язык для студентов 1 курса компьютерных специальностей : учебно-методическое пособие / Сост. М.В. Жесткова, С.Я. Никитина. – Самара : СамГУПС, 2007. – 169 с.

Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для расширенного изучения английского языка в области вычислительной техники и информационных технологий. Состоит из 8 уроков, каждый из которых помимо профессионально-ориентированных текстов содержит ряд упражнений, нацеленных на усвоение грамматической структуры английского языка, а также на изучение научно-технической лексики, в том числе терминов, аббревиатур, акронимов и т.п. Пособие ориентировано как на аудиторные занятия, так и на самостоятельную работу.

Для студентов 1 курса, которые специализируются в области компьютерных технологий и автоматизированных систем управления, и всех, кто имеет базовые знания английского языка и интересуется актуальными проблемами, связанными с возникновением, развитием и будущим компьютеров, с глобальной компьютеризацией общества.

УДК 420

ББК 81.2 Англ.

©Самарский государственный университет путей сообщения, 2007

Contents

Unit 1. In the Computer Room…………………………………………………………….

Grammar: Verbs to be, to have in the Present, Past and Future Indefinite.

Construction there +to be.

Infinitive of Purpose.

Modal Verbs: can must, may, should.

Unit 2. Computer Applications………………………………………………………….…

Grammar: Present, Past, Future Indefinite Active and Passive.

Modal Verbs can must, may, should with the Passive Infinitive.

General and Special Questions.

Possessive Case.

Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs.

Texts: Computers In Our Life. Common Computer Applications. Computer Application on Railways.

Unit 3. Types of Computers……………………………………………………………….

Grammar: Present, Past, Future Continuous Active and Passive.

Infinitive of Purpose after the Adverb enough.

Alternative Questions.

Texts: Types of Computers. Analogue and Digital Computers.

Unit 4. Hardware…………….…………………………………………………………….

Grammar: Participle I Simple.

Participle II.

Infinitive as an Attribute.

Texts: Hardware. The Definition of Mechanical Brain.

Unit 5. Software………………………………………………………………………….…

Grammar: Present, Past, Future Perfect Active and Passive.

Questions to the Subject.

Texts: Software. Electronic Games.

Unit 6. History of Computers..…………………………………………………………….

Grammar: Equivalents of the modal verb must – to be to; to have to.

Conditional sentences.

Texts: History of the Computer. Charles Babbage. Augusta Ada King.

Unit 7. Five Generation of Computers…………………………………………………….

Grammar: Equivalents of the Modal Verbs can and may.

-ed-forms.

Texts: Babbage's Dream Come True. Five Generation of Computers. Computerland.

Unit 8.The PC Revolution…….…………………………………………………………….

Grammar: Participle I Perfect.

Modal Verbs and their Equivalents.

Attributive Groups.

Texts: The PC Revolution. People Who Changed the Computer World.

Enjoy Yourself……………………………………………………………………………….

Краткий Грамматический Справочник…...……………………………………………

Библиографический Список……………………………………………………………...

UNIT ONE IN THE COMPUTER ROOM

Ex. 1. Practice the reading of the following words and phrases:

to practice, tendency, to publish, logic, idea, terminal, combination, to coordinate, microcomputer, system, arithmetic, process, special, group, strange, to format, practically;

central processor, nerve centre, laser printer, personal computer, operating system.

Ex. 2. Revise the following words from your school active vocabulary:

to enter, to load, to download, to create, to delete, to cut, to press, to happen, to become, to call, to prefer, to wait, to hope, to promise; science, hour, library, article, page, word, list, difference, importance; several, different, last, ready, easy, simply, sometimes, even, a lot (of).

Ex. 3. Memorize the following words.

  1. to develop –разрабатывать, развивать, совершенствовать

development – разработка, развитие, усовершенствование

  1. necessary – необходимый

  2. available –доступный, имеющийся в наличии, имеющийся в продаже

  3. main – главный, основной Syn: basic

mainly – главным образом, в основном Syn: primarily

  1. to solve (a problem, a task) – решать [задачу]

solution – peшeниe

  1. unit – устройство, блок

  2. similar– подобный, похожий (to – на что-л.)

  3. ability – способность, возможность Syn: capability

  4. to communicate – передавать, coобщaть (to – куда-л.); общаться (with – с кем-л.)

communication – coобщeниe, передача, связь

  1. to control – управлять, контролировать

control – yпpaвлeниe, кoнтpoль

  1. skill – навык, умение

skilled – (высоко)квалифицированный, опытный

  1. to perform – выполнять, исполнять, осуществлять Syn: to execute, to carry out

  2. up-to-date – современный Ant: out-of-date

  3. to switch – переключать

to switch on – включать Syn: to turn on

to switch off – выключать Syn: to turn off

switch – выключатель, переключатель

  1. digit – цифра

digital – цифровой

  1. to replace – заменять (by, with – чем -л.)

replacement – замена, перестановка

  1. to mean (meant, meant) – значить, означать, иметь в виду

meaning – значение

means – средство; способ, метод

  1. to access – имeть дocтyп, получить доступ

access – доступ

to have access – иметь доступ (to – куда-л.)

to gain access – получить доступ Syn: to get access

to deny access – запретить доступ, отказать в доступе

  1. to save1) сохранять, записывать [в память, на диск или ленту]; 2) беречь, экономить [время, труд, силы и т. п.]

  2. various – различный, разнообразный

  3. to search – искать (for – что-л.) Syn: to look for

search – поиск

  1. to use – использовать, применять

useful – полезный Ant: useless

  1. convenient – удобный

  2. to consider – считать, полагать

  3. source – источник

  4. particular – определённый, конкретный

particularly – особенно

  1. to enable – разрешать, позволять Syn: to allow

  2. to type(in) – печатать, набирать [на клавиатуре]

type – 1) тип; 2)шрифт Syn: font

bold type – жирный шрифт

italic type – наклонный шрифт, курсив

  1. to select – выбирать, отмечать Syn: to choose (chose, chosen)

  2. to arrange–размещать, располагать [по списку и т.п.]

  3. to highlight – выделять [информацию на экране]

  4. to edit – редактировать

  5. way – способ, средство, метод

  6. device – устройство, прибор

  7. data – данные, информация, сведения

Ex. 4. Read and translate the sentences, paying attention to the italicized words.

  1. Access to this confidential information was denied to journalists.

  2. The whole loading operation is performed in less than three seconds.

  3. The Internet is one of the best sources for up-to-date information.

  4. In the early 21st century, a new type of online encyclopedia (known as Wikipedia) enabled readers to create and edit encyclopedia articles.

  5. She likes to communicate with friends by e-mail.

  6. When the VCR (videocassette recorder) is programmed and a tape is put in it, it switches on automatically.

  7. CD-ROM discs are similar in appearance to audio CDs but they can be read only by a computer.

  8. If you put the cursor on a word, double-clicking the mouse highlights that word.

  9. To develop a program means to write a set of coded instructions, which allows the computer to solve particular problems or to perform particular functions.

  10. I did a search on the Internet and found three airlines with tickets available on that date.

  11. Someone gained unauthorized access to the personnel files.

  12. A data control system is a program, which is used for different operations with a database.

Ex. 5. Fill in the gaps with the required words. Consult the box if necessary.

  1. More than 80 % of the world’s PCs ___ Intel microprocessors.

  2. It is always difficult to ___ with someone who speaks a foreign language.

  3. These statistics were never made ___ to the public.

  4. Some websites are full of ___ information.

  5. The program enables you to ___ the Internet in seconds.

  6. You should ___ the title of the text in bold type.

  7. The central processor ___ all the arithmetic and logic operations.

  8. Teachers will never be ___ by computers in the classroom.

  9. Does the videocassette recorder ___ itself?

  10. The Internet ___ people to exchange text messages in real time.

  11. The CONTROL key allows each letter key to have one more ___.

  12. This model was ___ as the best digital camera on the market.

    1. access

    2. allows

    3. available

    4. communicate

    5. highlight

    6. meaning

    7. performs

    8. replaced

    9. selected

    10. turn off

    11. use

    12. useless

Ex. 6. Give English equivalents to the italicized words.

  1. Переключи the TV set to another channel. I don't считаю this program suitable for children.

  2. I hope I never live to see the day when computers finally заменят books.

  3. The example sentences in this dictionary are printed in жирным шрифтом while definitions are printed in курсив.

  4. People all over the world can использовать the Net to общаться with each other by email, personal Web pages, or Internet chat rooms [клуб по интересам] where they can печатать messages to carry on live conversations.

  5. This program позволяет us easy to создавать colorful diagrams and graphs.

  6. Computers решают not only arithmetic задачи, but draw diagrams, construct models, выполняют a lot of important operations.

  7. This electronic устройство can be of use in medicine and biotechnology.

  8. Most Americans rely on television as their основной источник of information.

  9. Выбери the landscape [альбомный, горизонтальный] format when printing the file.

  10. This program will enable you to получить доступ в the Internet in seconds.

  11. If you suspect a gas leak, do not strike a match or even включай an electric light.

  12. Выдели in жирный шрифт all computer terms that are unfamiliar to you.

Ex. 7. Choose the required word(s) to complete each sentence.

  1. I will never [solve, type, access, use] this puzzle – it is impossible.

  2. If you need to write an essay, the Internet will be a useful [means, access, source, search] of all kinds of information.

  3. He [replaces, considers, develops, searches] himself an expert on the computer programming.

  4. Educational games are very [various, useless, useful, similar] if you want to develop knowledge or skills.

  5. The operating system is the main program on a computer that controls how the machine works and [allows, saves, communicates, replaces] other programs to run.

  6. I [searched, solved, meant, selected] for any articles by Varenqe on the Web, and I found quite a few.

  7. Our [solution, means, control, ability] to speak and think makes us different from animals.

  8. All our computers [control, use, perform, type] Windows XP as their operating system.

  9. Television is an effective [search, means, way, source] of communication.

  10. [Select, highlight, delete, access] the text, which you want to format by holding down the left button on your mouse.

Ex. 8. One word in each sentence should be replaced by another one. Try to do it!

  1. Press Tab to indent [отступать вправо] the first source, then type the following paragraph.

  2. Credit cards are the most similar way of paying for purchases.

  3. I cannot really speak Spanish; I just know a few available words.

  4. I solved the important passages of the text in yellow.

  5. The access to the yesterday's crossword is on page 12.

  6. You need a password to deny access to the computer system.

  7. Icon is a small sign or picture on a keyboard that is used to start a particular operation.

  8. Clients can easily get useless information about our products on the Internet.

Ex. 9. (A) Memorize the words given in the box.

according to – в соответствии с, по словам such as – такой, как

both... and – как..., так и...; не только…, но и... in addition (to) – кроме того

by means of – при помощи, посредством as well as – а также

otherwise – иначе, в противном случае

(B) Translate the sentences.

  1. The electronic encyclopedias such as Britannica and Encarta are available on both CDs and DVDs.

  2. For this job, you will need a good knowledge of both Italian and Spanish as well as the skill at using a computer.

  3. The company provides cheap Internet access. In addition, it makes demo versions of various programs freely available.

  4. The books are arranged alphabetically, according to the author.

  5. Your handwriting is very illegible. You should type the letter; otherwise, it will be difficult for them to read it.

  6. Some storage units such as magnetic tapes are subject to storage degradation [ухудшение свойств при хранении] if they are not regularly used.

  7. By means of the Internet, companies sell goods and services online to customers. In addition to electronic commerce, companies use the Net to interact with other businesses to exchange financial information as well as to access various databases.

  8. The programmer must test carefully all of the program’s functions to check that the program performs according to specifications.

  9. You should save your files to a floppy disk or a CD as a backup copy. Otherwise, you may lose all the information if your hard disk crash.

  10. Gamers control characters [зд: персонаж, действующее лицо] on the screen by means of a joystick.

(C) Fill in the gaps with the required words. Consult the box given above if necessary.

  1. I am quite a fast typist. ___, I speak fluently both English and French.

  2. The two printers are very similar to each other in ___ size ___ design.

  3. The students were grouped ___ age and ability.

  4. Cell phones and watches contain tiny computers that can hold ___ information ___ telephone numbers, addresses, and appointments.

  5. I must go right now; ___, I will be late for the lecture in Information Science.

  6. The Internet is a system, which makes it possible for people to communicate worldwide ___ computers.

  7. Online shopping is ___ cheap ___ convenient.

  8. ___ Mick, it’s a great computer game.

  9. The office network allows users to share files and software ___ to use a central printer.

  10. The central processing unit performs all arithmetic and logic operations on data. ___ it times and controls all parts of the system.

  11. An Internet service provider is a company that provides you with an Internet connection and services ___ e-mail, etc.

  12. Key in the correct password. ___, you will be denied access to the database.

Ex. 10. (A) Describe a PC system, looking at the picture.

B) Match the terms (on the left) and their translation (on the right). Memorize them.

  1. central processing unit (CPU)

  2. video display unit (VDU)

  3. control unit (CU)

  4. input device

  5. output device

  6. storage device

  7. system unit

  8. disk drive

  9. floppy disk (floppy, diskette)

  10. hard disk (hard drive)

  11. keyboard

  12. screen

  13. scroll wheel

  14. speaker

  15. laser printer

  16. ink-jet printer

  17. computer tower

  18. hardware

  19. software

  20. peripherals

    1. гибкий диск, дискета

    2. дисковод

    3. жёсткий диск

    4. запоминающее устройство, устройство хранения данных

    5. клавиатура

    6. монитор

    7. колёсико прокрутки, скроллинг

    8. лазерный принтер

    9. устройство ввода

    10. периферийное оборудование, внешние устройства

    11. аппаратное обеспечение, аппаратура; проф.железо

    12. центральный процессор (ЦП, ЦПУ)

    13. системный блок

    14. экран

    15. блок управления, управляющее устройство

    16. вертикальный корпус ПК

    17. струйный принтер

    18. динамик ПК, акустическая колонка

    19. устройство вывода

    20. программное обеспечение, компьютерные программы проф. софт

Ex. 11. Read and translate the sentences.

  1. The scroll wheel is a construct [конструктивный элемент] of the mouse. It enables the user to move the image on the screen.

  2. The hardware of the PC includes a system unit and all the peripherals such as the monitor, keyboard, mouse, laser or ink-jet printer, etc.

  3. You will need to switch off the system unit before replacing the keyboard.

  4. The software filters out Internet sites whose content is not suitable for children.

  5. The computer operating system is the software that tells the computer what to do.

  6. The function of the control unit within the central processor is to transmit coordinating control signals and commands.

  7. A video display unit is a part of a computer with a screen, on which you can see graphic or text information.

  8. Although floppies were developed by IBM in 1972, they are still popular storage devices.

  9. Nobody knew how to set a screen saver to switch off the monitor screen.

  10. An input device is a peripheral, which enables us to enter data into the computer.

Ex. 12. Give English equivalents to the italicized words.

  1. This клавиатура is very comfortable for the пoльзoвaтeля.

  2. The speed of this струйный принтер operation is six or more pages per minute.

  3. The signals of the блок управления tell the arithmetic блок which operation to выполнить.

  4. A drop of water can damage a клавиатура or a дисковод.

  5. The центральный процессор is the nerve centre of the computer. It coordinates and controls the operation of all computer блоки.

  6. A computer can record information on a жёсткий диск, a гибкий диск or a CD.

  7. Устройства ввода are means of communication between the computer and the user.

  8. When I first turned on the computer, it reported a damage of the жёсткого диска.

  9. The print quality of the new лазерный принтер is superb.

  10. Гибкие диски and compact disks can perform both the ввод and вывод functions.

Ex. 13. TEST. Choose the required word to complete each sentence.

  1. Press this button to switch on the___.

A. keyboard C. floppy disk

B. system unit D. control unit

  1. A ___ is an obligatory part of any personal computer.

A. speaker C. printer

B. programmer D. keyboard

  1. ___ is the computer's physical electronic and mechanical parts.

A. control unit C. computer tower

B. central processor D. hardware

  1. A computer ___ is made up of a large number of dots [точка] called pixels.

A. screen C. peripheral

B. user D. software

  1. The password gives access to all files on the ___ drive.

A. floppy C. disk

B. compact D. hard

  1. A mouse is a mechanical or optical ___ unit.

A. output C. control

B. storage D. input

  1. The ideal position for the ___ is on the same plane [плоскость] as the keyboard and as close to the keyboard as possible.

A. monitor C. disk drive

B. central processing unit D. mouse

  1. This computer game is available over the Internet as free ___.

A. programmer C. peripheral unit

B. hardware D. software

  1. The future of high-quality printing in businesses belongs to ___.

A. ink-jet printers C. laser printers

B. computer typists D. typewriters

  1. Some computer viruses delete all the files on the ___ on a particular date.

A. hard disk C. video display unit

B. flash memory D. peripherals

  1. The ___ has a communication with all the computer units.

A. CPU C. DVD player

B. VDU D. CD-ROM drive

  1. Peripherals include ___.

A. central processor C. input and output units

B. main memory D. scroll wheel

Ex. 14. Replace the following definitions by one word.

  1. The sets of programs that tell a computer how to do a particular job.

  2. A square piece of plastic that you can store computer information on, and which you can remove from and put into a computer.

  3. A board with buttons marked with letters or numbers that are pressed to enter information into a computer or other machine.

  4. A device that is connected to a computer and used with it, for example a scanner or a mouse.

  5. A machine, which is connected to a computer and can make a hard copy of computer information.

  6. Computer machinery and equipment, as opposed to the programs that make computers work.

  7. A stiff disk inside a computer that is used for holding information.

  8. A mechanism that passes data between a disk and the memory of a computer or from one disk or computer to another.

  9. The part of a computer that controls all the other parts of the system.

  10. The part of a radio or a computer that the sound comes out of.

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