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EXCEPTION_INIT Pragma

EXCEPTION_INIT Pragma

The pragma EXCEPTION_INIT associates an exception name with an Oracle error number. You can intercept any ORAerror and write a specific handler for it instead of using the OTHERS handler. For more information, see "Associating a PL/SQL Exception with a Number: Pragma EXCEPTION_INIT" on page 10-7.

Syntax

exception_init_pragma

PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT ( exception_name , error_number ) ;

Keyword and Parameter Description

error_number

Any valid Oracle error number. These are the same error numbers (always negative) returned by the function SQLCODE.

exception_name

A user-defined exception declared within the current scope.

PRAGMA

Signifies that the statement is a compiler directive.

Usage Notes

You can use EXCEPTION_INIT in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block, subprogram, or package. The pragma must appear in the same declarative part as its associated exception, somewhere after the exception declaration.

Be sure to assign only one exception name to an error number.

Example

The following pragma associates the exception deadlock_detected with Oracle error 60:

DECLARE

deadlock_detected EXCEPTION;

PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT(deadlock_detected, -60); BEGIN

...

EXCEPTION

WHEN deadlock_detected THEN -- handle the error

...

END;

Related Topics

AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION Pragma, Exceptions, SQLCODE Function

13-44 PL/SQL User's Guide and Reference

Exceptions

Exceptions

An exception is a runtime error or warning condition, which can be predefined or user-defined. Predefined exceptions are raised implicitly (automatically) by the runtime system. User-defined exceptions must be raised explicitly by RAISE statements. To handle raised exceptions, you write separate routines called exception handlers. For more information, see Chapter 10.

Syntax

exception_declaration

exception_name EXCEPTION ;

exception_handler

OR exception_name

exception_name

WHEN

THEN

statement

OTHERS

Keyword and Parameter Description

exception_name

A predefined exception such as ZERO_DIVIDE, or a user-defined exception previously declared within the current scope.

OTHERS

Stands for all the exceptions not explicitly named in the exception-handling part of the block. The use of OTHERS is optional and is allowed only as the last exception handler. You cannot include OTHERS in a list of exceptions following the keyword WHEN.

statement

An executable statement. For the syntax of statement, see "Blocks" on page 13-8.

WHEN

Introduces an exception handler. You can have multiple exceptions execute the same sequence of statements by following the keyword WHEN with a list of the exceptions, separating them by the keyword OR. If any exception in the list is raised, the associated statements are executed.

Usage Notes

An exception declaration can appear only in the declarative part of a block, subprogram, or package. The scope rules for exceptions and variables are the same. But, unlike variables, exceptions cannot be passed as parameters to subprograms.

Some exceptions are predefined by PL/SQL. For a list of these exceptions, see "Summary of Predefined PL/SQL Exceptions" on page 10-4. PL/SQL declares predefined exceptions globally in package STANDARD, so you need not declare them yourself.

PL/SQL Language Elements 13-45

Exceptions

Redeclaring predefined exceptions is error prone because your local declaration overrides the global declaration. In such cases, you must use dot notation to specify the predefined exception, as follows:

EXCEPTION

WHEN invalid_number OR STANDARD.INVALID_NUMBER THEN ...

The exception-handling part of a PL/SQL block is optional. Exception handlers must come at the end of the block. They are introduced by the keyword EXCEPTION. The exception-handling part of the block is terminated by the same keyword END that terminates the entire block. An exception handler can reference only those variables that the current block can reference.

An exception should be raised only when an error occurs that makes it undesirable or impossible to continue processing. If there is no exception handler in the current block for a raised exception, the exception propagates according to the following rules:

If there is an enclosing block for the current block, the exception is passed on to that block. The enclosing block then becomes the current block. If a handler for the raised exception is not found, the process repeats.

If there is no enclosing block for the current block, an unhandled exception error is passed back to the host environment.

Only one exception at a time can be active in the exception-handling part of a block. Therefore, if an exception is raised inside a handler, the block that encloses the current block is the first block searched to find a handler for the newly raised exception. From there on, the exception propagates normally.

Example

The following PL/SQL block has two exception handlers:

DECLARE

bad_emp_id EXCEPTION; bad_acct_no EXCEPTION;

...

BEGIN

...

EXCEPTION

WHEN bad_emp_id OR bad_acct_no THEN -- user-defined ROLLBACK;

WHEN ZERO_DIVIDE THEN -- predefined

INSERT INTO inventory VALUES (part_number, quantity); COMMIT;

END;

Related Topics

Blocks, EXCEPTION_INIT Pragma, RAISE Statement

13-46 PL/SQL User's Guide and Reference

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE Statement

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE Statement

The EXECUTE IMMEDIATE statement executes a dynamic SQL statement or anonymous PL/SQL block. You can use it to issue SQL statements that cannot be represented directly in PL/SQL, or to build up statements where you do not know all the table names, WHERE clauses, and so on in advance. For more information, see Chapter 7.

Syntax

execute_immediate_statement

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE dynamic_string

,

define_variable

INTO

record_name

,

IN

OUT

IN OUT

USING

bind_argument

,

RETURNING

INTO bind_argument

RETURN

;

Keyword and Parameter Description

bind_argument

An expression whose value is passed to the dynamic SQL statement, or a variable that stores a value returned by the dynamic SQL statement.

define_variable_name

A variable that stores a selected column value.

dynamic_string

A string literal, variable, or expression that represents a single SQL statement or a PL/SQL block. It must be of type CHAR or VARCHAR2, not NCHAR or NVARCHAR2.

INTO ...

Used only for single-row queries, this clause specifies the variables or record into which column values are retrieved. For each value retrieved by the query, there must be a corresponding, type-compatible variable or field in the INTO clause.

PL/SQL Language Elements 13-47

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE Statement

record_name

A user-defined or %ROWTYPE record that stores a selected row.

RETURNING INTO ...

Used only for DML statements that have a RETURNING clause (without a BULK COLLECT clause), this clause specifies the bind variables into which column values are returned. For each value returned by the DML statement, there must be a corresponding, type-compatible variable in the RETURNING INTO clause.

USING ...

Specifies a list of input and/or output bind arguments. The parameter mode defaults to IN.

Usage Notes

Except for multi-row queries, the dynamic string can contain any SQL statement (without the final semicolon) or any PL/SQL block (with the final semicolon). The string can also contain placeholders for bind arguments. You cannot use bind arguments to pass the names of schema objects to a dynamic SQL statement.

You can place all bind arguments in the USING clause. The default parameter mode is IN. For DML statements that have a RETURNING clause, you can place OUT arguments in the RETURNING INTO clause without specifying the parameter mode, which, by definition, is OUT. If you use both the USING clause and the RETURNING INTO clause, the USING clause can contain only IN arguments.

At run time, bind arguments replace corresponding placeholders in the dynamic string. Every placeholder must be associated with a bind argument in the USING clause and/or RETURNING INTO clause. You can use numeric, character, and string literals as bind arguments, but you cannot use Boolean literals (TRUE, FALSE, and NULL). To pass nulls to the dynamic string, you must use a workaround. See "Passing Nulls to Dynamic SQL" on page 7-10.

Dynamic SQL supports all the SQL datatypes. For example, define variables and bind arguments can be collections, LOBs, instances of an object type, and refs. Dynamic SQL does not support PL/SQL-specific types. For example, define variables and bind arguments cannot be Booleans or index-by tables. The only exception is that a PL/SQL record can appear in the INTO clause.

You can execute a dynamic SQL statement repeatedly using new values for the bind arguments. You still incur some overhead, because EXECUTE IMMEDIATE re-prepares the dynamic string before every execution.

The string argument to the EXECUTE IMMEDIATE command cannot be one of the national character types, such as NCHAR or NVARCHAR2.

Examples

The following PL/SQL block contains several examples of dynamic SQL:

DECLARE

 

sql_stmt

VARCHAR2(200);

plsql_block

VARCHAR2(500);

emp_id

NUMBER(4) := 7566;

salary

NUMBER(7,2);

dept_id

NUMBER(2) := 50;

dept_name

VARCHAR2(14) := 'PERSONNEL';

location

VARCHAR2(13) := 'DALLAS';

emp_rec

emp%ROWTYPE;

13-48 PL/SQL User's Guide and Reference

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE Statement

BEGIN

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'CREATE TABLE bonus (id NUMBER, amt NUMBER)'; sql_stmt := 'INSERT INTO dept VALUES (:1, :2, :3)';

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING dept_id, dept_name, location; sql_stmt := 'SELECT * FROM emp WHERE empno = :id';

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt INTO emp_rec USING emp_id; plsql_block := 'BEGIN emp_pkg.raise_salary(:id, :amt); END;'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE plsql_block USING 7788, 500;

sql_stmt := 'UPDATE emp SET sal = 2000 WHERE empno = :1 RETURNING sal INTO :2';

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING emp_id RETURNING INTO salary; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DELETE FROM dept WHERE deptno = :num'

USING dept_id;

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE TRUE'; END;

Related Topics

OPEN-FOR-USING Statement

PL/SQL Language Elements 13-49

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