Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:

Pediatrics(2)

.pdf
Скачиваний:
9
Добавлен:
27.02.2016
Размер:
17.87 Mб
Скачать

Pediatrics

Clinical treatment guidelines By Dr: Essam Abdullah Hassan Pediatric consultant MBBCH,MSC PEDIATRICS Table of Contents

Acronyms...........................................................................

...........vi DIDACTION……………………………………………

…………vii.

 

1. Respiratory

 

Diseases................................................................

14

1.1. Rhinitis and

 

Rhinopharyngitis..............................................

14

1.2. Pneumonia..........................................................................

..16

1.3. Wheezing child/Asthma and

Bronchiolitis.............................

27

1.3.1. Acute

 

Bronchiolitis............................................................

27

1.3.2.

 

Asthma...............................................................................

 

32

 

1.4. Ear Nose and Throat

 

Conditions...........................................

46

1.4.1. Acute Otitis

 

Media.............................................................

46

1.4.2. Chronic Suppurative Otitis

 

Media…...................................49

 

1.4.3.

 

 

Tonsillitis............................................................................

 

.51

 

 

1.4.4. Acute

 

Mastoiditis.................................................................

55

1.4.5.

 

 

Epistaxis.............................................................................

 

57

 

 

1.4.6.

 

 

Sinusitis..............................................................................

 

.59

 

 

1.4.7.

 

 

Laryngitis...........................................................................

 

..61

 

 

1.4.8.

 

 

Epiglottitis..........................................................................

 

.63

 

 

1.4.9.

Pertussis (Whooping

 

cough)...............................................

64

1.4.10. Allergic

 

Rhinitis..................................................................

65

2. Gastro-intestinal

 

Disorders.........................................................

69

2.1.

Acute

 

Gastroenteritis.............................................................

69

2.2. Persistent

 

diarrhea..................................................................

76

2.3. Bloody

 

diarrhea......................................................................

81

2.4.

 

Constipation.......................................................................

 

....83

 

2.5. Constipation and

 

Encopresis.................................................

86

2.6. Upper Gastro-Intestinal Tract

Bleeding.................................

88

2.7. Peptic Ulcer

 

disease................................................................

93

2.8. Gastroesophagial

 

Reflux........................................................

96

2.9. Tropical Splenomegaly (Hyperreactive malarious

splenomegaly)

 

(HMS).................................................................

102

3. Cardiovascular

 

Diseases..........................................................

104

3.1. Heart failure (Congestive Cardiac

Failure)............................

104

3.2. Cardiogenic

 

shock.................................................................

111

3.3. Pulmonary

 

Oedema...............................................................

113

3.4. Congenital Heart

 

diseases......................................................

115

3.4.1.

Non Cyanotic Heart

 

diseases.............................................

116

3.4.2.

Cyanotic Heart

 

diseases.....................................................

122

3.5. Acquired Heart

 

diseases.........................................................

129

3.5.1.

Acute Rheumatic

 

Fever......................................................

 

129

3.5.2.

Rheumatic Heart

 

diseases..................................................

136

3.5.3.

Infective

 

Endocarditis.........................................................

140

3.6.

 

 

Cardiomyopathies..............................................................

 

....147

 

 

3.6.1. dilated

 

Cardiomyopathy......................................................

147

3.6.2.

Hypertrophic

 

Cardiomyopathy..........................................

149

3.6.3. Restrictive

 

cardiomyopathy................................................

152

3.7. Pericarditis/Pericardial

 

Effusion.............................................

155

3.8. Hypertension in

 

children........................................................

157

3.9. Cardiac Arrhythmias in

 

children............................................

165

3.10.

 

Bradyarrhythmias...............................................................

 

..171

 

4. Haematological

 

Conditions.......................................................

173

4.1.

 

Anemia...............................................................................

 

....174

 

4.2. Sickle Cell

 

Anemia..................................................................

195

4.3. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

(ITP)..........................

201

4.4

Haemophilia………………………………………..……

………211

 

5. Endocrine System

 

Conditions...................................................

215

5.1. diabetes Mellitus (Type I and Type

II).....................................

216

5.2. diabetic

 

Ketoacidosis...............................................................

219

5.3. Hypoglycemia....................................................................

.....226 5.4 thyroid

disorders………………………..………………………2

28

5.4a

Hypothyroidism……………….…………………………

……228 5.5 SIADH

(Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiureic hormone)…..230

5.6 Sexual developme………….…………………………………..2

32

 

6. Musculoskeletal

 

Conditions.....................................................

233

6.1. Septic

 

Arthritis.....................................................................

233

6.2. Juvenile Rheumatoid

 

Arthritis...............................................

235

7. Central Nervous

 

System..........................................................

238

7.1.

 

Epilepsy..............................................................................

 

..238

 

7.1a Febrile

 

Seizu………….…………..……...……………………24

5

 

7.1.1. Convulsive Status

 

Epilepticus...........................................

247

7.2. Cerebral

 

Palsy.......................................................................

251

7.3 Approach to a child with altered consciousness……………...254

8.

 

Dermatology.......................................................................

 

......255

 

8.1.

 

Eczema...............................................................................

 

...256

 

8.2. Bacterial Infections

 

(Impetigo)..............................................

259

8.3. Fungal

 

Infections..................................................................

261

8.3.1.

 

dematophytes....................................................................

2

61

 

8.4. Viral

 

Infections.....................................................................

263

8.4.1. Herpes Zoster Virus (HZV)

Infection................................

263

8.5. Parasitic

 

Infections................................................................

266

8.5.1.

 

Scabies...............................................................................

 

266

 

9. Infectious

 

Diseases...................................................................

267

9.1.

 

Malaria...............................................................................

 

...267

 

9.2.

 

Meningitis..........................................................................

 

...268

 

9.3.

 

Tetanus...............................................................................

 

..273

 

9.4.

 

Hepatitis.............................................................................

 

..276

 

9.5. Acute Liver

 

Failure...............................................................

280

9.6. Septicaemia........................................................................

...284

9.7. Salmonella Infections (Typhoid

Fever)

.................................291

References..........................................................................

...........294

Acronyms

ABC : Airway, Breathing, Circulation ABG : Arterial Blood Gases

ACE : Angiotensin Converting Enzyme

ACT : Artemisinin Combination Therapy

ACTH : Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone ADH : Antidiuretic Hormone

AHF : Acute Heart Failure

AIDS : Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ALAT : Alanine Transaminase

ALCAPA : Aberrant Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery

ARA : Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists ARDS : Acute Respiratory distress Syndrome ARF : Acute Rheumatic Fever

ASLO : Anti-Streptolysin O

AST : Aspartate AminoTransferase AVSD : Atrio Ventricular Septal defect AVPU : Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive BBE : Benzyl Benzoate Emulsion

BCG : Bacille Calmette -Guérin BD, BID : Twice per day

BE : Base Excess BP : Blood Pressure BW : Birth Weight

CAB : Circulation Airway Breathing CBC : Complete Blood Count

CCF : Congestive Cardiac Failure CHD : Congenital Heart disease

CK, CPK : Creatinine (Phospho) Kinase CKD : Chronic Kidney disease

CMV : CytoMegalo Virus CNS : Central Nervous System

COPD : Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease CPR : Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

CRC : Corrected Reticulocyte Count CRP : C – Reactive Protein

CSF : Cephalo Spinal Fluid

CT : Computerized Tomography CVD : CardioVascular disease CVS : CardioVascular System CXR : Chest X-Ray

DIC : disseminated Intravascular Coagulation DKA : diabetic Keto-Acidosis

DM : diabetes Mellitus

DNA : deoxyribonucleic Acid DVT : deep Venous Thrombosis EBV : Epstein-Barr Virus

ECG : Electrocardiogram EEG : Electroencephalography ENT : Ear Nose and Throat

ESR : Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate FBC : Full Blood Count

GER : Gasto-Eosophageal Reflux

GFR : Glomerular Filtration Rate

GTCS : Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures GIT : Gastro-Intestinal Tract

GORD : Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux diseases GXM : Group and Cross-Match

Hb : Hemoglobin

HCV : Hepatitis C Virus

HHS : Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State HIE : Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]