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Writing Linkers of addition

Link the ideas in this paragraph by putting the words in capital letters in the most suitable place in the line.

My heroine is a woman warrior from ancient Chinese history. Her story has become

mixed with myth and with imagination and fantasy. When many members of her family were killed by bandits, she disguised herself as a man and joined the army so she could find the murderers, and kill them. She was extremely brave and she became a skilled general. I admire her because she managed to deny all her feelings of weakness.

She put family honour first, even above her own safety. She was a Chinese woman and so am I!

AS WELL

TOO

ALSO

IN ADDITION BESIDES

Writing My hero

Write a description, in three paragraphs, of someone you admire very much. Write about 50 words in each paragraph.

PARAGRAPH 1: I N T R O D U C T I O N

Introduce your hero (or heroine). Is it someone from a hook, or a real person? Alive or dead? Where and when was the person born? Briefly describe the most memorable features of the person's physical appearance.

PARAGRAPH 2: ACHIEVEMENTS

Describe your hero's character, and his or her admirable actions.

PARAGRAPH 3: C O N C L U S I O N

Explain why you find these actions admirable.

30

Town and country

On the map

Grammar Comparatives and

superlatives

Rewrite the sentences below using the word in brackets.

1 Today the weather isn't as cold in London as on

the south coast.

Today the weather .is.warmer in...Londpn ..than on

the south coast,

(than)

2 The river Thames is shallower here than it is

 

further east.

 

The river Thames is

 

(less) 3 The streets are wider here than in the old town.

The streets are

(not)

4 In Mexico City it doesn't rain as much in the winter as in the summer.

In Mexico City in the summer, rainfall

(heavier) 5 Nowhere in the world is as dry as the Sahara

desert.

The Sahara desert is

(place) 6 Saudi Arabia is one of the hottest countries in the

world.

Few countries are

(as)

7 Poland is not as mountainous as Romania. Poland is

(flatter) 8 In a storm it's safer to be on land than at sea.

Storms are

(more)

E S S O N

1

O n

t h e

m a p

9Pakistan exports more cotton than anything else. Pakistan's

(successful)

10The fog isn't nearly as thick this afternoon. This morning the fog was

(much)

Passive

Complete each sentence (1-10) in an appropriate way (a-j).

awas first reached in 195 3.

bwill be flooded.

cis going to be provided with fresh water.

dis expected to continue for several weeks.

eis being drawn.

fmust be picked.

gwere being counted.

hhas been elected president there.

ihad already been destroyed.

jhave been given temporary accommodation.

31

INDIA

1

The north of the country .is..bordered

 

(border) by the Himalayas, the highest mountains in

 

the world.

 

2

On the east, India

(separate)

from Burma by foothills of the Himalayas.

3 The Ganges is geographically the most important river, and (consider) sacred by most Indians.

4Basically, the year in India can

(divide) into three seasons: hot, wet and cool.

5

The capital consists of two cities, Old Delhi, which

 

 

(plan) in 164 8 by Shah Jehan,

 

the Moghul emperor and builder of the Taj Mahal.

 

and New Delhi, which

(found)

 

by the British as the imperial capital in

19 31.

6

Most workers (70%)

(employ) on|

 

the land, but India is also one of the world's major

 

industrial powers and recently major efforts

 

 

(make) to move Indian industry

 

into modern 'high tech' areas.

 

7

Textiles

(export) all over the

 

world from

India.

 

8

Sixteen official languages and 8 2 0 dialects

 

 

(speak) in India.

 

32

U N I T

4

T o w n

a n d

c o u n t r

Practise talking about a nice place to live. Do this by:

explaining each of the choices you made in the questionnaire

saying whether where you live at the moment is a nice place to live, and giving your reasons

First listen to an example on the recording.

Now record your own ideas on a blank cassette. Listen to them and think how you could improve what you say. Then record everything again.

If possible, compare your ideas with those of a classmate. (This is something you will have to

do in Paper 5.) Do you both have the same ideas about what makes a place nice to live in?

In the city

Conditional sentences

Finish these sentences in a way that makes sense for you.

a there would be less crime.

b people won't feel safe walking home at night.

c there'd be more pavement cafes in the city centre. d I'll be able to grow bananas in my garden.

e we would fly to Europe more frequently. f will Ewa help me find a flat?

g would people take advantage of them? h I'd have a house overlooking a canal. i be sure to go to the ballet.

j we can have breakfast in London and lunch in Paris.

L E S S O N

1

O n

t h e

m a p

33

What would it be like?

IN international magazine for

students of English

has asked its readers to write a short

article.

They

should imagine what it would

be like

living

in a city

in another part of the world and write down their thoughts.

Choose a city and then, using some of the ideas below and either Skeleton A or Skeleton B, write an article for publication in the magazine. Write four paragraphs. Begin each paragraph in the way shown in the skeleton. Write about 1 50 words.

S K E L E T O N B

My nightmare city

S K E L E T O N A

My dream city

1

If I could live in any city in the world I would

 

choose

To me that city always

 

looks

 

 

2

In

I'd be able to do many things

 

I can't do where I live now. For example

 

3

However, there would probably be a few

 

 

disadvantages to living in

as

 

well. For example

 

 

4

In conclusion

 

 

City life

Practise listening for the general idea with five short pieces about city life. Before listening,

read the questions through carefully and think about what you can expect to hear. Then listen and choose the correct answer (A, B or C) for each question.

1In a city street, you overhear a woman talking. Who is she talking to?

A people who have lost their way

(B) people who are sightseeing in her city C people who are looking for a church

2Listen to two people talking about having friends in cities.

What opinion are they expressing?

A It's nice to be able to drop in on your friends. B The size of a city can influence the number of

friends you have.

C You have to limit the number of friends you have. 3 Listen to a historian talking on the radio about the

different ethnic groups living in London. What is her purpose?

Ato show that some ethnic groups have lived in London for a long time

Bto criticise people's ignorance of the ethnic groups living in London

Cto explain why some communities arrived only recently

4 You overhear a conversation in a street.

What relationship do the two men have with each other?

A colleagues B friends C neighbours

5Listen to a woman talking on the radio about the difficult living conditions in her city.

What has caused these difficult conditions?

A an earthquake B poverty C a war

Were you able to get the general idea, even if you couldn't understand everything? Were you

able to ignore any unfamiliar words?

34

U N I T 4

T o w n

a n d

c o u n t r y

On the land

The right word

 

 

Fill the gaps in a-d by using

 

each word in the

 

 

box once only.

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

cultivated

harvested

planted

 

sowed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

Some of the trees in this park were

 

 

 

 

 

two hundred years ago.

 

b

The farmer first prepared the ground and then

 

 

 

 

 

the seeds.

 

 

 

 

c

They

 

 

 

as much fruit as they

 

 

could before the autumn rains came.

 

d

My great-grandparents kept chickens and pigs and

 

 

 

 

 

several fields.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

lane

path

track trail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

The local park has a special running

 

 

 

 

 

for joggers.

 

b

The dogs followed the

 

 

 

of the

 

 

fox but eventually lost it.

 

 

 

 

c

The children reached the river by running along

 

 

the narrow

 

 

 

through the fields.

 

d

They live in a cottage at the end of a quiet

 

 

 

 

 

off the main road.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

near

nearby

nearest

next

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

They own a weekend house

 

 

a

 

 

famous nature reserve.

 

 

 

 

b

My friend's been taken ill. Where's the

 

 

 

 

 

hospital?

 

 

 

 

c

There's no garage here, but you'll find one in the

 

 

 

 

 

village.

 

 

 

 

d

The thief hid the stolen bicycle behind some

 

 

 

 

 

bushes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

crosses

flies

flows

rushes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

The Parana river

 

 

 

into the sea

 

 

north of Buenos Aires.

 

 

 

 

b

The plane

 

 

from here to the

 

 

capital once a day.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c

At the start of the play, an old man slowly

 

 

 

 

 

the room and opens the door.

 

d

When she hears the doorbell, she

 

 

 

 

 

excitedly to the window to see

 

 

who it is.

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

floated overflowed

ran

splashed

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

The lorry drove through the puddles and

the people at the side of the

road.

b When the snow melted, the river its banks.

c The child dropped the stick in the river and watched as it under the bridge.

d When he saw the end of the film, tears down his face.

Choose the correct word from the box for each definition (either a-d or a-e).

1 bank beach coast seaside shore

The word for

athe land at the side of a river is the

bthe area of sand by the sea is the

cthe place by the sea where people go on holiday is the

dthe land along the edge of a lake or a sea is the

ethe line on a map where land meets the sea is the

2 border boundary edge margin

3 panorama scene scenery view

The best word to describe what you see

afrom a hotel window is

bfrom the top of a mountain, stretching in all directions is

cfrom a car or train when travelling through the countryside is

din a painting or in a play is

L E S S O N 3 O n t h e l a n d

35

Match each symbol to its meaning

1 +

2 -

3 x

4 -

5 =

adivided by

bequals

cminus

dmultiplied by

eplus

With which symbol do these verbs go?

fadd

gsubtract

Which of each pair of verbs must have an object (e.g. the cards, a flag)?

Which of each pair does not have an object?

lay / lie raise / rise

What is the past tense and the past participle of each verb? Choose from these possibilities:

laid lain lay raised risen rose

Fill each gap with the correct form of one of the verbs.

1

At the equator the sun

at

the

 

same time every day.

 

 

2

The children had to

their

hands

 

if they wanted to ask a question.

 

 

3

They

a cloth on the ground and

 

began to unpack the food.

4

After lunch they

in the shade

 

and were soon fast asleep.

A hellishly noisy place

Do you think the

country is quiet and peaceful?

Or do you think it can be noisy? Sort

the list of

countryside noises below

into three groups,

according

to your opinion:

 

 

1 pleasant, 'natural' sounds

2noises which have to be accepted

3noises which should be controlled

singing birds

farmers' vehicles

overhead planes

running

water

farm machinery

barking

dogs

building work

farmers'

guns

calling animals (e.g. cows, donkeys, sheep) visitors' cars, motorbikes, radios

Read this newspaper article about the problems that some people have had with countryside

noise in England. Eight sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-I the one which fits each gap 1-8. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

36

U N I T 4

T o w n a n d c o u n t r y

Phrasal verbs

Can you answer these questions about some phrasal verbs? All the verbs are formed with either 'up' or 'down'. Check with your dictionary if you aren't sure.

Numbers and

symbols

Practise saying these numbers and symbols. Then check your pronunciation against the examples on the recording.

How do you say these figures?

Where do you put the word 'and' when you say these numbers? Where do you not use it?

420 7 0 1 . 1.362 2 5 , 5 0 0

57,251

6 3 8 , 9 5 9

How do you say '0' in each of these cases?

Phone number:

0 1 7 1 749 0 5 4 4

Mathematical

figure: 2 -

2 = 0

Countdown:

5-4

-3-2-1-0!

Football score:

2-0

Tennis score:

15-0

L E S S O N 3

O n t h e l a n d

3 7

A question of health

Health and fitness

The present

Answer these questions about yourself. Use at least one of the words or phrases from the box

in each answer. Write complete sentences.

always

frequently

from time to time generally

hardly ever now and then

occasionally

often

rarely

regularly

seldom

sometimes

usually

 

 

 

 

 

Put the verbs in the correct tense: present simple or present progressive. Make any other

necessary

changes.

 

 

1

Georgia usually

..goes

(go) to the

 

Sports Centre after work, but she often

 

 

 

(spend) all the time in the coffee

 

bar so she

 

(get) fit very slowly!

2

'You

 

(work) in St Luke's Hospital

 

this month, aren't you? What you

 

(do) there?'

 

 

 

'I

 

(have) a job in the kitchen.

 

Every morning I

 

(give) advice to

 

the cooks about menus for patients with special

 

diets. In the afternoon I

(be) free

 

so I

 

(finish) my thesis.'

38

 

 

 

 

3 'You (enjoy) your meal?'

'Yes, thank you. I normally (not eat) meat, but this stew

(taste) delicious.'

 

4 Marta

(study) very hard for her

exams next month. As soon as she

(wake) up, she

(open) her books,

and she hardly ever

(play)

basketball now. It

(surprise) me

because I

(know) she

(prefer) sport to school work! But she

(seem) happy and healthy.

5 People

(become) more and more

aware of the health benefits of having regular

holidays. The pressures of everyday life

 

(get) worse and stress-related

illnesses

(increase).

A day in the life of...

Imagine you are a journalist for a magazine called Health and fitness. At a prize-giving ceremony held by your magazine, you interviewed ONE of the characters on the opposite page, asking him or her to describe a typical day in his/her life.

These are some of the questions you asked. What do you think the replies were?

What activities do you do during the day? Where do you do them?

How long for?

How do you feel about these activities?

Who do you come in contact with during the day? Do these people share your attitude to health and

your lifestyle?

What is special about your day?

U N I T 5

A q u e s t i o n o f h e a l t h

Write three paragraphs for your magazine describing a typical day in the life of the person you interviewed. Write about 1 50 words. The topic sentence for each paragraph has been done for you:

1Mornings are always a bit difficult for Mr/Ms ...

2Things start to get better for him/her at lunchtime ...

3The best time of day for him/her is the evening ...

Talking about photos

These two photos show different ways that people can have a healthy lifestyle.

Here is a typical exam task for Part 2 of Paper 5, using these photos:

Compare and contrast the two photos, saying how you feel about these ways of having a healthy lifestyle. You have about a minute to do this.

To do the task well, you need to

apick out things which the photos have in common.

bdescribe ways in which they are different.

cgive your opinions on the topic.

Listen to the example on the recording, which starts but does not finish the task.

Now practise doing steps a and b above.

The photos show contrasting ways of keeping fit and healthy:

-taking exercise, e.g. going for a walk, playing a sport

-eating, e.g. being careful about your diet

What is your opinion of these? Which is easier for you to do? Which is more effective?

Practise giving your opinion.

Record yourself doing a-c on a blank cassette. Then listen and think how you could improve what you say. Have you used some of the language

in the Coursebook on pages 52-3? Did you keep talking for about one minute (not much more, not much less).'

Repeat the whole task and record yourself again.

L E S S O N 1

H e a l t h a n d f i t n e s s

39

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