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Vocabulary

Prepositional phrases

1

by hand

2

on the one hand

3 on the other hand

4

at hand

 

 

 

 

1

in the future

2

in future 3

by far 4 in advance

1

By far

 

 

 

 

2

in

the future

 

 

 

3

at

hand

 

 

 

 

4

On the one hand

on the other hand

5by hand

6In future

7in advance

U N I T

13

LESSON

3

Listening Watch out!

 

2 F

3 D

4 B 5

E

Grammar Quantity

2Some people believe there is a monster in Loch Ness, while others disagree.

3 Like most people, I have experienced a few strange coincidences, but not many.

4European scientists have little knowledge of nanotechnology.

5Both Evans and Parker wanted to go on the space walk, but the commander didn't want either of them to do it.

f> Correct

7In the next decade, there are likely to be several important discoveries in most scientific fields.

8A lot of/Lots of time is spent checking every component before all rockets are launched.

9No technician looked at either of the two faulty computers.

10None of the students / No student did well in both mathematics papers, though some did excellently in one.

Vocabulary The right word

1

a

burst

b

stretched

c

leaked

d

cracked

2

a

calculated

 

b

numbered

c

measured

 

d

estimated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

a

contained

 

b

consisted

c

connected

 

 

d

combined

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

a

dissolved

b

divided

 

c

included

d

involved

5

a

correct

b

accurate

 

c

exact

d

sharp

6

a

perform

 

b

operate

 

c

run

 

d proceed

7

a

installed

b

purchased

c established

d traded

8

a

supplied

b

stored

c

stocked

d

served

9

a

requested

b

begged

 

c

appealed

d

prayed

1 discover the cause of cancer invent a new product

2experiment with genetic codes research into the history of science

3 examine a blood sample under a microscope select a particular area to study

4analyse the results of research check a letter for mistakes

U N I T 14

LESSON 1

Grammar Passive (revision)

2 are believed to have been

3 is hoped

4 is being cut

5have been destroyed by

6the planet be saved

7should be taken

8aren't/are not regularly recycled by 9 will eventually be ruined by

10were being cooked and eaten

11was dug up by archaeologists

12were thrown out of

1 3 had been built by

14 will be learnt

Reading Back from extinction

2 E

3

A

4 F 5

B

U N I T

14

 

LESSON

2

Grammar The - ing form or the infinitive

When a dam in French Guyana made the river Sinnamary burst its banks, the water started flooding the rainforest. Forest animals were forced to escape into the trees. Conservationists helplessly watched the water level rising/rise. When it threated to cover even the trees, the French government and the company responsible for building the dam agreed to provide money for a rescue. A team of 40 French vets tried to save as many animals as possible. They used speedboats to chase the animals and darts to make them temporarily unconscious. In all, they managed to rescue 5,000 creatures. Animals that were unable to climb trees, such as rodents, were saved first. They were so happy to get away from the water they didn't mind being handled by the vets. Monkeys were more difficult to capture: although most monkeys can't stand getting wet. these ones preferred drowning to travelling in a boat with a vet. The vets couldn't prevent some monkeys from falling into the river and then they had to swim after them. Sloths were equally uncooperative. They wouldn't let the vets carry them down the trees without being anaesthetised first. The animals were later released into the safety of French Guyana's first national park. They seem to enjoy living in their new home. But do they remember running for their lives from the advancing water? And do they regret being made to leave their old surroundings?

Vocabulary

Phrasal verbs (revision)

 

2

an idea 3 rain

 

4 a bus

5

trouble

 

6

an opportunity

7 a promise

8 hunger

9 a journey

10

lunch

 

 

 

 

 

 

Word formation

 

Revision exercise

 

2

skilful/skilled

3

properly

4

possessions

 

5

professionally

6

sale 7

threatened 8

confused

9

unrecognisable

 

10 villagers

11 patiently

150

A n s w e r s

U N I T 14

LESSON 3

Grammar Impersonal 'it'

2It is months since Akiko last felt homesick.

3It is common for salesmen to change jobs regularly (to regularly change jobs).

4I find it sad when I lose contact with old friends.

5It will be fun staying with my Australian penfriend.

6It was midnight when they reached the frontier.

7It is a pity that Andreas moved out of the city centre.

8Did you find it easy to make friends in London?

9It took Paolo ages to get used to his new school.

10It is often said that the world is getting smaller.

Vocabulary

The

right

word

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

a

pollution

b

litter

c waste

d

dirt

 

 

2

a

barked

b

grunted

c

squeaked

d hissed

 

3

a

interfering

b mistreating

c

misleading

 

 

d

exploiting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

a

obey

b owe

c

omit

d

oblige

 

 

5

a

risked

b

dared

c

relied

tl

upheld

 

 

6

a

depend

b

guarantee

c

undertake

d ensure

 

1

pat, slap, smack, stroke

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

cuddle, hug. squeeze

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

scrape

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

friendly: cuddle, hug. pat, stroke

 

 

 

 

Listening

 

An

unusual

story

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 13

3 C

4 C

5 13

6 B

 

 

 

 

U N I T

 

15

 

LESSON

1

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

 

Once upon a

time

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 D

3 E

4 A

5 B

6 B

7 E

8 and 9 A/B

 

10 C

11 A

12 D

13 E

14 B

 

15 C

16 A

Grammar

Revision

of

tenses

 

 

 

 

 

You should have made the following corrections. The

remaining verbs are correct.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

She's/She is still sleeping. She's/She has been sleeping for

 

a long time ... We're/We are waiting ...

 

 

3

... he had first met her.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4... 1 come from Austria. This is the first time I've/I have ever been ... 1*11/1 will have taken photos ... When I'm/I am back ...

5I'll/I will drive ... you've/you have had ...

6He's/He has just left ...

7... I saw it ... I'm/I am thinking of ... nobody goes there

... it used to be very popular.

8... Reid's/Reid has been here ... He was following the lorry when it crashed ... there hasn't/has not been ...

9... It's time we had ...

10I'd rather he didn't/did not ... I won't invite him ...

11... he was looking ... The diary must have been written ...

she'd/she had been given the diary ...

12... until we have received replies ...

Vocabulary Phrasal verbs (revision)

2

1 b

2

c

3

a

3

1 a

2

c

3

b

4

1 b

2

c

3

a

5

1 c

2

b

3 a

6

1 a

2

c

3

b

7

1 b

2

a

3 c

8

1 c

2

a

3 b

U N I T

15

 

LESSON 2

Listening

 

The

arts

 

2 B

3

C

4 B

5 A

Grammar Conditional sentences (revision)

2her parents say

3whenever he's / he is

4provided (that) the manager gives

5I told you / informed you / said to you

6long as you're / you are careful

7was/were you, I'd / I would have

8if they hadn't / had not had

9wouldn't / would not cost so much / would cost less

10would he have painted

11unless she practises every/each

12if it didn't / did not look

1 3 have/get the chance, taste

14wish Jane Austen had written

15only I knew

16wish you wouldn't / would not do / wish you didn't / did not do

Writing Making a complaint

Your letter to the festival organisers could be something like this:

Dear Sirs,

I recently attended the International Drama Festival in Guildford. I am afraid its bad organisation spoiled my enjoyment of an otherwise excellent festival.

Firstly, it was impossible to get information about the festival in advance. No one answered your box office phone, and I could not buy a festival programme beforehand. So I went to Guildford not knowing anything about the plays or whether I could get tickets. As I had never been to Guildford before, it was difficult to find the different theatres.

Secondly, according to the festival advertisement, student reductions were available. Unfortunately, even though I showed my student card from my university in Dublin, I was not given a reduced price ticket.

Finally, I was disappointed there was no Irish company at the festival. Ireland has a great theatrical tradition and audiences would have enjoyed seeing an Irish play.

I hope the festival will be held again next year. If it is, please make sure more information is available in advance and that reductions are offered to all genuine students.

Yours faithfully.

A n s w e r s

151

U N I T

 

15

 

LESSON

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vocabulary

The

right

word

 

 

 

 

1

rough

2

tough

3

stiff

4 hard

 

 

1

drew

2 sketched

3

wrote

4 represented

5

expressed

6

designed

7

constructed

8 shaped

1

a

size

b

shape

c

form

d figure

 

 

2

a

praised

b

congratulated

c

boasted

 

 

d

applauded

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

a

attended

 

b were present

c

appeared

 

d

assisted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

a

luck

b

chance

c

 

opportunity

d

fortune

5

a

forgive

b

regret

c

pretend

d

deserve

Grammar Revision exercise

2suggested (that) Harry went / Harry should go

3when Easter was

4was much bigger than

5was the most boring (one)

6's/is time Kevin was married

7still haven't/have not been sent

8was being watched by

9wish ballet was/were performed

10are likely to be / to have

11wouldn't/would not have met

12'd/had better not go

1 3 case I feel like taking

14too intelligent to believe

15such cold weather (that)

16is used to swimming

17in spite of looking

18the guests except (for) Luke

19this theatre has been built / is built

20a few people realise how

U N I T 15

LESSON 4

Exam review

Advice for Gi-Suk:

You are not supposed to read every word in Part 4 of Paper 1. Part 4 tests your ability to find information quickly without reading every word. You either have to look for a specific piece of information or try to understand the general idea. Always read the questions first and find the answers as quickly as you can.

Advice for Sallette:

It's a very bad idea to answer two questions in Part 2 of Paper 2! Firstly, because the examiner will only read the first one, and secondly because you only have time to do one well-planned, well-written piece of writing in this part. If you're not sure which topic you will do best, write a brief paragraph plan for two of them. This will show you which topic you are most at ease with and you can then develop that plan.

152

1 True

2False - Your marks are added together to form a final total. This decides your grade.

3False - You must write in pencil in Papers 1, 3 and 4 and in pen in Paper 2.

4False - Some parts (e.g. Paper 1. Part 4) are meant to take less time than others. In addition, there are some parts that will take you longer than others: this is an individual matter. It's up to you to divide your time in the way that is best for you. Don't spend so much time on one part that you don't have enough time for the other parts.

5True - What is important is how you organise and express your ideas, not how original they are.

6False - You should not write more than 18 0 words for each part. Examiners will not read your composition

after the 1 8 0 word-length has been reached.

7True

8True

9False - You have to finish each part before you go on

to the next. There is no time at the end for checking the whole paper, and in any case you will have forgotten the content by then!

10False - You do not have to wear formal clothes but, out of respect for the examiners, you should try not to look scruffy.

A n s w e r s

A cknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Alison Silver. Liz Sharman, Hilary Fletcher. Alyson Maskell, Liz Driscoll, Ruth Carim. Nick Newton and Randell Harris for their invaluable help in producing this book.

The authors and publishers would like to thank the following teachers and their students for piloting First Certificate Avenues Workbook:

Julian Hall, F.urocentres. Cambridge. UK

Susan Altard. British Institute. Monza, Italy

Hanna Kijowska, Warsaw. Poland

Kiriakos Vasilomanolakis. Institute of Foreign Languages, Hania,

Crete, Greece

Paul Sainsbury, Ruth Breeze and Stephen Markey, LTniversidad de Navarra, Spain

Richard Baudains, The British School of Trieste. Italy Their comments and suggestions were very helpful.

The authors would like to thank the following for their help with recordings: Sue Lake. Bram Poldervaart, Debbie Chapman, Marie Marguerite Sinare and Peter Bareham. Thanks also to the recording studio actors: Ishia Bennison. Tyler Butterworth, Vicky Uorush, Alberl Ehrnrooth. DeNica Fairman. Rupert Farley. Nigel Greaves, Stephen Grothgar. Sharon Holm. Federay Holmes. Simon Mattacks. Juliet Prague. Jean-Luc Rebaldi. Jacqui Reddin. Gertrude Thoma. Joanna Wyalt.

James Richardson produced Ihe recordings at Studio AVP.

The authors and publishers are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material.

Focus magazine for the extracts on pp. 10 - 11 from

Paying lip

service:

the irresistible kiss by Christopher Middleton. Focus,

February

1 9 9 5

and on pp. 16 - 17 from Ice cream: What's in a lick by Susan Aldridge. Focus, July 1995 : Reuters for the extract on p. 22 from A question of honour by Philip Shehadi: The Observer for the extracts on pp. 36-7 from Shattered: The myth of the rural idyll by Michael Durham and on pp. 110-11 from Ghost wolves return to their lair by Ed Vulliamy: Reed Books for the extract on p. 42 from My Left Foot by Christy Brown. Seeker & Warburg 19 54: Evening Standard/Solo for the extract on p. 50 from Fishing for good fortune by Christopher Hudson; Times Newspapers Ltd for the extracts on p. 55 from For those in terror of the air © Lee Rodwell/The Times. 16th June 1 9 8 6 and on p. 74 from Prince's venture changes a rogue into a model citizen by Chris Lightbown, © Times Newspapers Ltd 1 9 8 8 ; The Independent for information used in passages on pp. 6 1 , 112 . 113 , for the extract on p. 81 from I tried to kill my pretty sister by Hester Lacey and for the extract on p. 101 from A computer the size of a blood cell by Annabel Maclver; A.M. Heath & Co for the extract on pp. 64 - 5 from Ring of Fire Copyright © Lawrence and Lome Blair. Bantam Press 1 9 8 8 ; Reed Books for extract A on p. 78 from A Circle Round the Sun by Peregrine Hodson. published by William Heinemann Ltd 1 9 9 2 ; Serafina Clarke for extract D on p. 79 from Women Who Love Too Much by Robin Norwood. Arrow Books Ltd 1 9 8 6 ; HarperCollinsPuMis/iprs Limited and Simon & Schuster for extract E on p. 79 from Wild Swans by Jung Chang; Telegraph Group Ltd for the article on p. 88 Dominic tricks his way into Circle © Steve Jackson 1996 : Eric Ambler c/o Campbell Thomson & McLaughlin Ltd for the extract on pp. 98 - 9 from Tlie Light of Day © Eric Ambler,

Heinemann 1 9 6 2 : extract B on p. 1 1 7 is from The Classic Fairy Tales

by Iona and Peter Opie, 1 9 7 6 , and is reproduced by permission of Oxford University Press; extract C on p. 1 1 7 is taken from Genesis by Eduardo Galeano, published by Quartet Books Ltd in 1 9 8 6 and is used with the permission of Quartet and Pantheon Books/Random

House Inc.; extract D on p.

11 7 is approximately 14 5 words from

the back cover of The Death

of King Arthur translated'by James Cable

(Penguin Classsics 1 9 7 1 ) copyright © Penguin Books Ltd 1 9 7 1 .

Reprinted by permission of Penguin Books: the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, for extract E on p. 11 7 from Arnold L. Haskell's programme notes for The Firebird.

It has not been possible to trace the copyright holders of. all the material used and in such cases the publishers would welcome information from them.

We are grateful to the following for their permission to reproduce copyright material and photographs:

Corbis-Bettmann for p. 10 1; Robert Harding Picture Library/Wally Herbert for p. 10 br, Cambridge University Press/Hilary Fletcher for p. 10 tr, Image Bank/Joseph van Os for p. 11: Mary Evans Picture Library for p. 16; The Anthony Blake Photo Library/Tim Imrie for

p.1 7 / ; Zefa Pictures/J.Bitsch for p. 22 : Tony Stone Images/David Sutherland for p. 32; The Independent/Keith Dobney for p. 39 t; Cambridge University Press/Trevor Clifford for p. 39 b: Impact/Erol Houssein for p. 4 1 ; Pictor International for p. 45 hi. tl. m: Robert Harding Picture Library for p. 45 br. tr: Hulton Getty Collection for p. 58; Camera Press for p. 63 : Planet Earth Pictures/Andrew Mounter for p. 64; Tony Stone Images/Ken Fisher for p. 71 t; Robert Harding Picture Library for p. 71 b; Impact/Michael Mlrecki for

p. 73: Robert Harding Picture Library for p. 80 ; Pictor International for p. 85 ml, b: Robert Harding Picture Library for p. 85 mr, Tony Stone Images/David Young Wolff for p. 8 5 tl: Cambridge University Press/Hilary Fletcher for p. 85 tr; Tony Slone Images/Art Wolfe for

p. 1 1 0 ; David Poll for p. 119 : Image Bank/Barros & Barros for p. 121 r; Pictor International for p. 121 /: Telegraph Colour Library/F.P.G/© A.Tilley for p. 1 2 4 hi; Pictor International for

p. 1 2 4 br; Comstock for p. 1 2 4 tr; Cambridge University Press/Hilary Fletcher for p. 12 4 tl.

Cartoons on pp. 8 6 . 109 by kind permission of Private Eye: pp. 12. 2 6 . 55 by kind permission of Punch.

Special thanks to The London Dungeon for permission to use their copyright logo on p. 2 8 .

We have been unable to trace the copyright holders of the items on pages 61 and 88 and would be grateful for any information to enable us to do so.

We are grateful to the following illustrators: Juiie Anderson for

pp. 32. 72 . 79 r; James Bartholomew for pp. 18 b, 27 r, 34 . 4 2 . 62 .

97 t, 10 5 1; Kathy Baxendale for pp. 14. 47 (. 48 b. 6 4 , 80

b, 90 /,

9 9 . 11 3 1; Phil Healey for pp. 27 /, 39 /, 48 t, 8 1 , 9 1 . 106 ,

1 1 1 ; Sue

Hillwood-Harris for pp. 28 r, 79 1. 80 t, 112: Amanda MacPhail for

pp.

28

/,

36,

56, 6 9 . 82 .

97 b, 1 2 5 ; Bill Piggins for pp.

8, 2 0 ,

47 h,

54, 59, 70 . 87, 1 1

0 ; Sam Thompson for pp. 18 t,

30, 33,

39

r, 4 9

, 7 1

. 90 r. 105 r. 11 3 r; Rosemarv Woods for D. 108 .

Picture research by Hilary Fletcher.

Design by Newton Hfris .

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