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11Archaeologists dug up some of this rubbish thousands of years later.

archaeologists Some of this rubbish

thousands of years later.

12The Romans threw various unwanted objects out of their villas and military camps.

out

 

Various

unwanted objects

 

 

 

Roman villas and military

 

camps.

 

 

1 3

Archaeologists discovered later inhabitants had

 

built houses on top of Roman rubbish dumps,

 

by

 

 

 

Archaeologists

discovered houses

 

 

 

later inhabitants on top of

 

Roman

rubbish

dumps.

14

What will future generations learn about us from

 

our rubbish?

 

 

will

 

 

 

What

 

about

 

us from

our rubbish by future generations?

Back from extinction

Which of these statements is closest to your own point of view? What are your reasons? Can

you support your ideas with examples?

Read this newspaper article about wolves in North America. Five paragraphs have been

removed from the article. Choose from paragraphs A-F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use.

110

U N I T 1 4

T h e w o r l d

a r o u n d

us

Looking at both sides

You recently listened to a radio discussion on this topic:

Should we have stricter laws to prevent ordinary people from causing pollution?

Here are some of the views that were expressed. How far do you agree or disagree with each opinion? Why?

Write a letter (120-180 words) to the presenter of the radio programme giving your views on

the topic.

First write a paragraph plan. Make sure you look at both sides of the problem and organise your ideas clearly.

L E S S O N

1

T h e

e n v i r o n m e n t

111

Animal life

The -ing form or the infinitive

Check that the -ing form and the infinitive (with and without 'to') have been used correctly in this text. Make any necessary corrections. You should find 18 mistakes. The first one has been corrected for you.

Animal rescue

When a dam in French Guyana made the river Sinnamary to burst its banks, the water started flooding the rainforest. Forest animals were forced escaping into the trees. Conservationists helplessly watched the water level to rise. When it threatened covering even the trees, the French government and the company responsible for build the dam agreed provide money for a rescue. A team of 40 French vets tried saving as many animals as possible. They used speedboats chasing the animals and darts to make them temporarily unconscious. In all, they managed rescue 5,000 creatures. Animals that were unable to climb trees, such as rodents, were saved first. They were so happy getting away from the water they didn't mind to be handled by the vets. Monkeys were more difficult capture: although most monkeys can't stand get wet, these ones preferred drowning to travelling in a boat with a vet. The vets couldn't prevent some monkeys from fall into the river and then they had to swim after them. Sloths were equally uncooperative. They wouldn't let the vets to carry them down the trees without be anaesthetised first. The animals were later released into the safety of French Guyana's first national park. They seem to enjoy to live in their new home. But do they remember running for their lives from the advancing water? And do they regret being made leave their old surroundings?

Phrasal verbs (revision)

Find the odd one out. Which object in each group does not go with the phrasal verb?

1

 

the cat

You

put

out the cat at night.

put

out

a

fire

You

put

out

a fire

with

water.

your hand

You

put

out

your

hand

to

 

 

 

 

a party

shake

 

someone

else's.

 

2

 

weight

 

 

 

 

 

 

put

on

a coat

 

 

 

 

 

 

an idea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

tape

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

the price

 

 

 

 

 

 

put

up

guests

 

 

 

 

 

 

rain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a notice

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

a meeting

 

 

 

 

 

 

put off

a bus

 

 

 

 

 

 

someone buying an old car

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

someone playing chess

 

 

 

5

 

space

 

 

 

 

 

 

take

up

scuba diving

 

 

 

 

 

 

trouble

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

an offer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

new information

 

 

 

 

 

take in

the teacher

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

jacket

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

an opportunity

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

your hand

 

 

 

 

 

 

hold

up

a promise

 

 

 

 

 

 

the traffic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a bank

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

hunger

 

 

 

 

 

 

fill in

a form

 

 

 

 

 

 

time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a crack

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

language

 

 

 

 

 

 

pick up

a

friend

 

 

 

 

 

 

the receiver

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a journey

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

a

story

 

 

 

 

 

 

make up

lunch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

your face

 

 

 

 

 

 

your mind

112

U N I T 1 4

T h e w o r l d a r o u n d u s

Family animals

Can you solve this problem?

Paul and his mother have just moved to a new firstfloor flat. Paul is crazy about animals: he has several tropical fish, three white mice, two songbirds and a rabbit. His mother has a cat, which is the only animal she really likes. Where can all the animals live?

Look at the floor-plan of the new flat and think about what sort of conditions the animals need to live in.

What solution(s) would you recommend to Paul and his mother?

Record your ideas on a blank cassette. Listen to them and think how you could improve what

you say. Then record everything again.

Answer these questions as fully as you can:

Do you have any pets at home?

Do you think it is good for children to grow up with pets?

Which animals do you think make the best pets? Which animals are unsuitable as pets?

What problems can pets cause?

Record your answers on a blank cassette, listen to them and record again.

Do you both have similar solutions to the problem? Do you have similar or different opinions about pets?

Revision exercise

Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

The Elephant Princess

 

Catching wild elephants is (1)

.dangerous

work and Parbati Barua is

DANGER

 

the only woman in the world who is (2)

 

at it. Before she

SKILL

 

could walk (3)

 

her father, tin Indian Rajah, gave her an

PROPER

 

elephant to ride. When the Rajah lost his money and (4)

, he

POSSESS

 

and Parbati took up catching wild elephants (5)

, taming

PROFESSION

 

and offering them for (6)

 

However, the survival of the

SELL

 

wild elephant is (7)

in India. The forest is being cut

THREAT

 

down to grow tea. The wild elephants become (8)

when the

CONFUSE

 

building of a village makes their usual path (9)

and they

RECOGNISE

 

can damage crops and houses and even kill (10)

Parbati's

VILLAGE

 

job now is (11)

guiding lost elephants back to the jungle

PATIENCE

 

before they do any harm.

 

 

 

 

L E S S O N

2 A n i m a l

l i f e

 

 

 

113

Concrete jungle

Impersonal 'It'

Write sentences putting the words in brackets in normal sentence order.

114

The right word

Fill the gaps in a-d by using each word in the box once only.

l

 

dirt litter

pollution

waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

Air

 

 

is a major worry for city-

 

 

living

parents.

 

 

 

 

b

Don't drop paper in the streets: take your

 

 

 

 

home with you.

 

c

The local paper factory used to pump its

 

 

 

 

straight into the river.

 

d

Take your shoes off: I don't want any

 

 

 

 

in the house!

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

barked

grunted hissed squeaked

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

The dog

 

when it heard

 

 

strange footsteps approaching the house.

 

b

The pigs

 

happily as they

 

 

searched for food under the trees.

 

c

The mouse

 

with fear as the

 

 

cat jumped on it.

 

 

 

 

d

The snake

 

a warning as the

 

 

curious child came too close.

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

exploiting

interfering

misleading mistreating

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a Many scientists now believe human activities are seriously with the environment.

b She gets very upset when she sees people animals.

 

c

The landowner tried

 

the

 

 

journalists by showing them only the untouched

 

 

part

of his forest.

 

 

 

d

There are ways of

 

forests

 

 

without destroying them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

obey

oblige omit

owe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a If you buy a dog, you'll have to train it to your commands.

b We borrowed money to buy that horse. Now we the bank £ 5 , 0 0 0 .

cCompany reports usually

unpleasant information, such as the damage they cause the environment.

dThe Government plans to

companies to clean up any pollution they cause.

U N I T 1 4

T h e w o r l d a r o u n d u s

5

 

dared

relied

risked

upheld

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

He

 

 

 

his life trying to protect

 

 

the deer from the hunters.

 

 

 

 

 

b Only the experienced snake-hunter

 

 

 

 

 

 

to follow the python into the

 

 

cave.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c

The scientists

 

 

 

on the local

 

 

people to show them where the gorillas lived.

 

d

After international criticism, the government

 

 

 

 

 

 

the law and stopped the trade

 

 

in endangered species.

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

depend

ensure

guarantee

undertake

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

The villagers

 

 

 

on this well for

 

 

their water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b

They

 

 

 

they will replace the

 

 

machine if it breaks down in the first year of use.

c

The department can only

 

 

 

 

 

 

projects when there are enough funds,

d

The government must

 

 

that

 

 

people are not harmed by the effects of its nuclear

 

 

tests.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cuddle

hug

pat

scrape

 

slap smack

 

 

 

 

squeeze

stroke

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Which of these actions are normally performed with

1 the palm of the hand?

2 the arms?

3 an instrument (e.g. a knife)?

Which are friendly?

Listen

to

Peter telling

an unusual story

about

his first

experience

of

being away from

home.

What is the

best title for

his

story?

 

A Living in an old college

BSeeing a ghost

CA tragic marriage

Listen again and choose the best answer (A, B or C) for questions 1-6. Before listening, look at

the historical note below.

1 The speaker saw the ghost when he was living in college accommodation.

Bstaying overnight in a castle.

Csleeping in a converted hotel.

2What did he first notice when he woke up? A the time

Bthe temperature

Ca noise

3 What was the ghost doing when he saw it?

Abending over him

Bsitting by the door

Cresting motionless 4 How did he react?

AHe didn't understand what was happening.

BHe was too frightened to move.

CHe watched the ghost.

5How did the ghost leave the room? A It rose through the ceiling.

B It moved through the door. C It suddenly vanished.

6According to the speaker, the ghost belonged to a woman who had been

A murdered for changing her religion. B cruelly punished by her family.

C married to a violent husband.

Historical note:

In the early 1530s King Henry VIII of England and his parliament decided to break the power of the Catholic church and of its head, the Pope in Rome, over religious and political life in England. Henry became Head of the Church of England (= the Anglican church). At the same time, most Catholic monasteries were closed down (= the Dissolution of the Monasteries).

L E S S O N 3

C o n c r e t e

j u n g l e

115

Culture and tradition

Traditional stories

Once upon a time

What stories did you most enjoy reading, or watching (on television or video or in the

cinema) as a child? Why? Were any of these stories traditional stories, either from your country or from another part of the world?

You are going to read some texts to do with traditional stories. For questions 1-16 choose

from the texts A-E. The texts may be chosen more than once. Try to do this exercise in no more than 15 minutes.

Which text is a complete story?

Which text is an extract from:

-the back cover of a book?

-a theatre programme?

-a story for children?

-the introduction to a story for children? Which story involves:

-two sisters with different personalities?

-two characters who fall in love at first sight?

-an old woman who is good to people who are nice to her?

Which story includes:

-an animal that helps a human character?

-a magic piece of clothing?

Which story deals with the theme of:

-the end of a kingdom?

-the evil powers of one of the characters?

-the punishment of a bad character?

-murder and theft?

-an ordinary person in search of an extraordinary reward?

116

C u l t u r e a n d

t r a d i t i o n

B

L E S S O N

1

T r a d i t i o n a l

s t o r i e s

117

Revision of tenses

Check that the appropriate tenses have been used in the parts of the sentences which are in italics. Make

any

 

necessary

corrections.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

was

 

 

1

Snow White's mother died when she has been a

baby.

2 You can't speak to the Princess. She

still

sleeps.

She

 

sleeps for

a

long time

now.

 

The

wicked

witch

made

her

 

fall asleep

93

years ago

because

no

one

had

invited her

 

to

the

Princess's christening

 

party.

We

wait

for a

 

 

Prince

to

come to

wake

her

 

up.

 

 

 

 

 

3

The Prince didn't see the beautiful goose girl again,

 

although

lie

returned

many

times

to

the

place where he

 

has first

met

 

her.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

I

live

in

Germany,

but

I'm

coming from Austria.

This

 

is

the first

time I'd

ever

been

to

Canada.

By

the time I

 

go home I hope I will take photos of all parts of the

 

country.

 

When

I'll

be back

in Germany,

I'll

have an

 

exhibition

of

 

my

photos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5Don't sit in the driver's seat, Rob. I drive this evening. I was going to let you drive but you have too

much to drink.

 

6 I'm

afraid you're too late to see Dr Takis. He just

leaves the clinic. He used

to see patients at this time,

but he doesn't any more.

He'll be attending a meeting

all

tomorrow morning, so

come back tomorrow

afternoon.

7Have you heard the news about the old theatre?

They're going to pull it down. I've seen it in the newspaper yesterday. I think of making a protest! I know nobody is going there now, but it was used to being very popular. We would go at least once a month

when we were children.

8The ambulance arrived at the scene of this accident ten minutes ago. Police Constable Reid is

here

for

half

an

hour.

He followed the lorry when it

was

crashing

into

the bridge. There wasn't such a

serious

accident

on

this

road before.

9f received an electric shock when I was switching on the bathroom light. It's time we have that switch mended. 1 might have been killed!

10Jake is an irritating child. I'd rather he doesn't eat chocolate in bed, and I wish he wouldn't leave his dirty

clothes on

the floor.

If his manners don't improve, I

don't invite

him to

stay again.

11 Sam came across his grandmother's diary when he

had

been

looking in

the attic for some

old photographs.

The

diary

must

be

written when

his

grandmother was

a teenager. On

the first

page, Sam

read that she was

given

the

diary

by

her

brother on

her fifteenth birthday.

12Our school celebrates its one hundredth anniversary next year. There's going to be a big party which several famous old students will attend. We won't know exactly who is coming until we will have received replies to the invitations.

Phrasal verbs (revision)

Match each sentence with the most appropriate response.

a She's already found them. b She's a good detective.

c She'll take good care of them. a Well done!

b Cheer up!

c You're lucky! a Not very well.

b It's not for amateurs. c It's fresh today.

a Is he always ungrateful?

b Does he always come unexpectedly? c Is he always unlucky?

118

U N I T 1 5

C u l t u r e a n d t r a d i t i o n

aDon't worry.

bYou'll need more staff.

cHave a good trip.

aI'm sorry.

bIt's nothing.

cThank you.

aWas her opponent stronger?

bCan't she keep a secret?

cBecause of her eyesight?

aI've told you everything.

bI'm too tired.

cI'll go more slowly.

Art and culture

The arts

When did you last go to any of the following?

an art gallery

a concert

a film

the theatre

What did you see or hear? Did you enjoy it?

Listen to these five short pieces about the arts. Choose the correct answer, A, B or C, for each

question.

1 You switch on the radio and hear a man talking. What is his profession?

art historian

Bchildren's book illustrator

Cpsychologist

2 You ring an arts centre and hear part of a prerecorded message about an exhibition. Who would it interest most?

A someone interested in Asian arts

Bsomeone working in the fashion business

Csomeone researching African political history

3Listen to part of a talk about special buildings in which music is played. What gives the music its wonderful sound?

A the absence of walls

B the material of the floor C the shape of the roof

4At the station, you overhear a woman talking on the phone. Who is she phoning?

Aa ticket office

Bher boyfriend

Cher boss

5Listen to someone talking about a season of films shown in an arts cinema. How does she feel?

A surprised at the choice of films B entertained by the films

C uncertain what to think

L E S S O N 1

T r a d i t i o n a l

s t o r i e s

119

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