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title:

Water Quality & Systems : A Guide for Facility Managers Facilities Management

Library

 

author:

 

Reid, Robert N.

 

publisher:

The Fairmont Press

 

isbn10 | asin:

1577303008

 

print isbn13:

9781577303008

 

ebook isbn13:

9780585213637

 

language:

English

 

subject

Plumbing, Water quality management.

 

publication date:

1996

 

lcc:

TH6126.R32 1996eb

 

ddc:

696/.1

 

subject:

Plumbing, Water quality management.

 

 

cover

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Water Quality & Systems

A Guide for Facility Managers

By Robert N. Reid, PE

Published by

One Penn Plaza, 10th Floor

New York, NY 10119

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Page iv

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Reid, Robert N., 1949-

Water quality and systems: a guide for facility managers/by Robert N. Reid.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-57730-300-8

1. Etc.

Water Quality And Systems: AGuide for Facility Managers/by Robert N. Reid.

© 1996 by UpWord Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Published by UpWord Publishing, Inc.

One Penn Plaza, 10th Floor

New York, NY 10119

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

The information contained in this book has been obtained from sources that are believed reliable. Damages arising from errors, omissions or damages as a result of use or misuse of the data or information in this book are not the responsibility of the publisher, authors, editors or printers of this work. This work is published for professionals seeking information about the subjects contained herein. It is not the intent of this work to provide professional services such as engineering or consulting. If these services are sought, they should be rendered by properly trained, registered, regulated and insured professionals.

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This book is dedicated to Katherine Jane Schow Reid, my partner for 25 years. It is also dedicated to Mr. P. Kirt Carpenter, Jr., Project Manager of the Central Utah Project and a member of the old school.

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Page vii

The Author

Robert N. Reid is a registered professional engineer and a professional writer who specializes in writing technical materials for non-technical people.

As a professional writer, Mr. Reid's magazine articles have been published in a variety of professional and non-professional publications, including water management articles in trade and industry publications.

As a water professional with 20 years of experience, Reid has served as a facility manager and engineer for hospitals, military bases and large municipal water projects. He has managed, designed, specified, constructed and tested water and wastewater systems. By his own admission, he has been "under the gun" more than once.

Reid is a member of the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials and the American Water Works Association. He has prepared and presented technical papers for the National Fire Protection Association, the Pacific Rim Conference of Building Officials, and the American Society of Civil Engineers.

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Contents

 

Preface

xix

Introduction

xxi

Chapter 1 - Water Use And Abuse

1

Planned Water Management

1

Water In, Water Out

2

Water Supplies

2

Water Costs

2

Quantitiy

3

Individual Uses

3

Light Industrial And Manufacturing Uses

3

Lawns And Agricultural Use

4

Industrial Uses

4

Delivery

4

Pollution/Washing/Waste

5

Utility Billings

5

Metering

7

Water Treatment

8

Wastewater Treatment

8

Common Complaints

8

Laboratory Tests

9

Chapter 2 - Water Sources And Management

13

Water Resources

13

The Hydrologic Cycle

13

Supplies

14

Natural Lakes And River Supplies

14

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Man-Made Reservoirs

15

Springs

15

Wells

16

Wastewater

18

Stormwater

18

Rainfall

19

Stormwater Ponds

20

Utility Interface

22

The Next Step

22

Chapter 3 - Piping Components And Systems

25

Pipe Talk

25

Piping

26

Pipe Fittings

26

The Facility Manager's 10 Questions

27

Piping Materials

30

Ductile Iron Pipe

31

Steel Pipe

31

Case Study: Polybutylene Piping System Loses Lawsuit

31

Copper Pipe

32

ABS Pipe

33

PVC Pipe

33

Other Plastic Pipes

33

Fiberglass Pipe

34

Concrete Pipe

34

Clay Pipe

34

Pipe in Older Facilities and Buildings

35

Remodeling/New Pipe

35

Water Supply Piping

35

Wastewater Piping

35

Stormwater Pipe

36

Sanitary Sewer Pipe

37

Buried Pipe

38

Double-Walled Pipe

38

Corrosion

38

Coatings

39

Pipe Joints

40

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Screwed Joints

40

Sweated Or Brazed Joints

40

Glued Joints (plastic Pipe)

41

Bell And Spigot Joints

41

Mechanical Joints

42

Compression Joints

42

Flanged Joints

42

Welded Joints

42

Pumps

43

Pipe and Pump Cost Tradeoffs

43

Pump Operational Problems

45

Pump Seal Problems

45

Pump Plugging Problems

46

Pump Suctions and Priming

46

Tanks

47

Valves

49

Gate Valve

50

Globe Valve

50

Ball Valves

51

Fixtures

51

Sinks And Bathtubs

52

Water Closets (Toilets)

53

Urinals

53

Bidets

54

Showers

54

Combining Systems

56

Chapter 4 - Instrumentation, Hydraulics, Plumbing

57

Instrumentation

57

Flow Meters

57

Pressure Recorders

63

Thermometers

65

Red-Line/Warning

66

Calibration

66

Hydraulics

67

Water Hammer

68

More Complex Hydraulics

69

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Case Study: Water Cost Savings Can Pay

69

Wastewater Hydraulics

71

Smooth Means More Water

71

How to Quickly Estimate Pipe Flow Capacities

73

Plumbing

75

Traps And Vents

75

Air Gap

76

Cleanouts

76

Backflow Preventers And Crossed Connection Control

76

Chapter 5 - UpGrades And Renovations

81

Renovation Strategies

81

Conduct A Needs Assessment

82

Conduct A Utility Survey

83

Constructing A Model Of Water Use

83

Adjusting The Model To Meet The Flows

86

Analyze The Model

88

Compare Alternatives And Decide

88

The U.S. EPA's WAVE Saver Program

89

Chapter 6 - Hot Water Systems

91

Introduction

91

Options Available to the Facility

92

System Sizing and Design

98

Storage

98

Recirculation

98

Instantaneous "Tankless" Heaters

99

Heat

100

Piping

101

Insulation

103

Safety

103

Water Heating Safety Standards

104

Temperature Control

104

Valves

104

Instruments

104

Maintenance

105

Case Study: Water Too Hot at VA Hospital

107

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Chapter 7 - Regulations

 

109

Law and Regulations of Water Systems

 

109

Federal Water Laws

 

110

The Clean Water Act

 

111

The National Pollution Discharge Elimination System

 

111

The Safe Drinking Water Act

 

112

National Primary Standards

 

114

Secondary Drinking Water Standards

 

114

Information Collection Rule

 

115

Monitoring

 

116

Public Notification

 

116

Hazardous Waste Laws

 

117

Resource Conservation And Recovery Act

 

117

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation And Liability Act

117

Superfund Amendments And Reauthorization Act

 

118

Hazardous Waste Management

 

118

Local Implementation of Federal Standards

 

118

The State

 

118

The County

 

120

The Municipality

 

120

The U.S. EPA

 

120

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

 

120

Codes and Standards

 

121

National Fire Protection Association

 

121

Uniform Building Code

 

121

Uniform Plumbing Code

 

122

Regulated Construction Materials

 

122

Other Code-Making Bodies

 

123

Water Rights

 

123

Adjudicated Rights

 

123

Riparian Rights

 

124

Consumptive And Non-Consumptive Use

 

124

Chapter 8 - Water Purity

 

127

The Roots of Water Purity

 

127

Water Impurities

 

129

Action Level of Contaminants

 

130

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