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Correlations exist between variations in the gravity anomaly field and corresponding variations in geological, crustal, and upper mantle structure, regional and local topography and various other types of related geophysical data. In many areas where gravity information is sparse or missing, geological and geophysical data is available. Therefore, the various prediction methods take into account the actual geological and geophysical cause of gravity anomalies to predict the magnitude of the anomalies.

 

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Chapter VI Satellite Geodesy

Scientific papers advocating the use of satellites for geodetic purposes were published as early as 1956. Geodetic applications were outlined by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for data obtained from Project Vanguard during the 1958-59 International Geophysical Year. Many techniques and a great deal of knowledge were ultimately derived from this project. With this information, the constant growth of space technology, the development of electronic distance measuring devices, and the perfection of electronic data processing equipment, satellites specifically equipped for geodetic purposes have been developed, launched, observed and the data utilized.

The first real geodetic satellite was ANNA-1B launched in 1962. Project ANNA was a truly cooperative effort involving the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and other civil agencies. Several observational systems were developed and improved during ANNA. These systems included geodetic cameras, electronic ranging and Doppler. Knowledge gained from Project ANNA was also useful in the development of Laser ranging systems.

Observational Systems

Two basic systems have been used for obtaining geodetic information from artificial earth satellites – optical and electronic. These systems have made it possible to perform various geodetic measurements to relate known or unknown positions to the earth's center, to relate

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