Добавил:
Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:

Cisco. Fundamentals Network Design - Cisco Press

.pdf
Скачиваний:
173
Добавлен:
24.05.2014
Размер:
3.49 Mб
Скачать

Understanding and Defining BGP Routing Policies

Figure 3-39 imple route reflector example.

Without a route reflector, the network shown in Figure 3-39 would require a full IBGP mesh (that is, Router A would have to be a peer of Router B). If Router C is configured as a route reflector, IBGP peering between Routers A and B is not required because Router C will reflect updates from Router A to Router B and from Router B to Router A. To configure Router C as a route reflector, use the following commands:

!Router C router bgp 100

neighbor 1.1.1.1 remote-as 100

neighbor 1.1.1.1 route-reflector-client neighbor 2.2.2.2 remote-as 100

neighbor 2.2.2.2 route-reflector-client

The router whose configuration includes neighbor route-reflector-client router configuration commands is the route reflector. The routers identified by the neighbor route-reflector-client commands are clients of the route reflector. When considered as a whole, the route reflector and its clients are called a cluster. Other IBGP peers of the route reflector that are not clients are called nonclients.

An AS can have more than one route reflector. When an AS has more than one route reflector, each route reflector treats other route reflectors as normal IBGP speakers. There can be more than one route reflector in a cluster, and there can be more than one cluster in an AS.

Route Flap Dampening

Route flap dampening (introduced in Cisco IOS Release 11.0) is a mechanism for minimizing the instability caused by route flapping. The following terms are used to describe route flap dampening:

Designing Large-Scale IP Internetworks 3-63

Summary

Penalty—A numeric value that is assigned to a route when it flaps.

Half-life time—A configurable numeric value that describes the time required to reduce the penalty by one half.

Suppress limit—A numeric value that is compared with the penalty. If the penalty is greater than the suppress limit, the route is suppressed.

Suppressed—A route that is not advertised even though it is up. A route is suppressed if the penalty is more than the suppressed limit.

Reuse limit—A configurable numeric value that is compared with the penalty. If the penalty is less than the reuse limit, a suppressed route that is up will no longer be suppressed.

History entry—An entry that is used to store flap information about a route that is down.

A route that is flapping receives a penalty of 1000 for each flap. When the accumulated penalty reaches a configurable limit, BGP suppresses advertisement of the route even if the route is up. The accumulated penalty is decremented by the half-life time. When the accumulated penalty is less than the reuse limit, the route is advertised again (if it is still up).

Summary of BGP

The primary function of a BGP system is to exchange network reachability information with other BGP systems. This information is used to construct a graph of AS connectivity from which routing loops are pruned and with which AS-level policy decisions are enforced. BGP provides a number of techniques for controlling the flow of BGP updates, such as route, path, and community filtering. It also provides techniques for consolidating routing information, such as CIDR aggregation, confederations, and route reflectors. BGP is a powerful tool for providing loop-free interdomain routing within and between ASs.

Summary

Recall the following design implications of the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocols, and the BGP protocol:

Network topology

Addressing and route summarization

Route selection

Convergence

Network scalability

Security

This chapter outlined these general routing protocol issues and focused on design guidelines for the specific IP protocols.

3-64 Internetwork Design Guide

C H A P T E R 4

Designing SRB Internetworks

This chapter discusses source-route bridging (SRB) and remote source-route bridging (RSRB). SRB is evaluated within two contexts: Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and NetBIOS.

When IBM developed SRB technology in the mid-eighties, it was viewed as a local technology that would interconnect a few rings and terminate at a remote 3745. The challenge for any SRB internetwork occurs when the scale exceeds what was originally intended by IBM. This technology encounters problems when non-IBM protocols are required to coexist with native Token Ring traffic. Source-route bridges were intended to be the primary internetworking tool for creating a corporate-wide Token Ring internetwork. These bridges were never meant to scale to the level that many customers require. This chapter addresses the challenges of this environment and aims to help network designers successfully implement SRB within a large, multiprotocol topology. This chapter is grouped into the following topics:

SRB technology and implementation overview

Internet Protocol (IP) routing protocol selection and implementation

SRB network design recommendations and guidelines

Note For information concerning IBM serial line connections, refer to Appendix B, “IBM Serial Link Implementation Notes.”

SRB Technology Overview and Implementation Issues

The following discussions address SRB-related technology, features provided to support SRB requirements, and implementation issues that can affect large-scale, router-based SRB networks. Specific topics include the following:

Typical SRB Environments

Multiport Bridging

Explorer Packets and Propagation

NetBIOS Broadcast Handling

LAN Framing

WAN Framing

WAN Parallelism

WAN Frame Sizes

SNA Host Configuration Considerations for SRB

Designing SRB Internetworks 4-1

SRB Technology Overview and Implementation Issues

Note If you have eight or fewer routers operating as SRBs, you can skip this chapter. You probably do not need to tune your network.

Typical SRB Environments

SRB is used in three types of user environments:

Many end stations to few end stations (hierarchical)—In a hierarchical SNA network, end users from multiple access sites need connectivity to a host site through a limited number of front-end processors (FEPs).

Many end stations to several end stations (distributed)—Many users need to access a limited number of servers or a limited number of devices, such as an AS/400.

Any-to-any (flat) —End users at one site need to access end stations at another site.

The following discussions evaluate SRB environment design issues in relation to these user environments.

Multiport Bridging

The fundamental design of an SRB, as initially created by IBM, was a two-port, ring-to-bridge- to-ring combination. IBM also created a half-bridge configuration that consisted of a ring-to-wide-area-network (WAN) combination followed by a second WAN-to-ring half-bridge combination.

To support more than two rings, multiport routers adopt an implementation that allows SRBs to include multiple rings on a single internetworking node. This is accomplished via the virtual ring capability. A virtual ring is a conceptual entity that connects two or more physical rings together, locally or remotely.

Figure 4-1 illustrates the concept of multiport bridges and a virtual ring.

4-2 Cisco CCIE Fundamentals: Network Design

Multiport Bridging

Figure 4-1 Multiport bridge using virtual ring concept to permit multiple ring interconnection.

Token

Ring

Router

Token

Virtual ring

Token

Ring

 

Ring

Token

Ring

The concept of virtual rings can be expanded across router boundaries. A large virtual ring can connect several access points to a central router with an FEP. Figure 4-2 illustrates this expansion.

Figure 4-2 Virtual rings expanded across an IP cloud.

Token

Ring

 

 

IP cloud

Token

Virtual

Token

Ring

ring

Ring

Token

Ring

Routers support simple bridging, multiport bridging, and connections to both local and remote virtual rings. A virtual ring configuration is required to communicate with remote rings. The half-bridge configuration is not supported. The IBM half bridge does not use the concept of virtual rings; two IBM half bridges use two rings. The virtual ring advantage is in a topology that features many SRBs. In such an arrangement, only a single unit is required at a central site.

Designing SRB Internetworks 4-3

SRB Technology Overview and Implementation Issues

Remote virtual rings have a property not found in physical ring topologies: The logical connectivity is determined by the network administrator. Two options are available: partially meshed topologies (sometimes called redundant star topologies) or fully meshed topologies. In a partially meshed topology, a single central location (such as an FEP Token Ring) is connected to all access locations. Each access location is logically connected to the central FEP rings and is not connected to any other ring. Partially meshed topologies using virtual rings do not permit direct communication between remote rings. However, communication is allowed from the central ring to the remote rings, which also allows communication among remote rings through the central ring.

In a fully meshed virtual ring topology, any ring can communicate with any other ring. Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4 illustrate partially meshed and fully meshed topologies. In the partially meshed topology depicted in Figure 4-3, all rings are logically bridged to Token Ring 10. The access rings are not bridged together. In the fully meshed topology illustrated in Figure 4-4, all rings are bridged to all other rings.

Figure 4-3 Typical hierarchical topology.

Token

Ring 10

Virtual ring

Token

Token

Ring 20

Ring 60

Token

Token

Ring 30

Ring 50

 

Token

Ring 40

In the topology illustrated in Figure 4-3, each of the access routers is a peer to the FEP router. They are not peers to one another. Thus, SRB is enabled between all rings and Token Ring 10 and is not enabled between token rings 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60.

Assuming this is only a hierarchical SNA environment, users connected to these rings do not have SRB connectivity. Broadcasts are not forwarded across the lower layer rings (token rings 20 through 60); broadcasts are sent only from Token Ring 10 to or from the other rings.

In the topology illustrated in Figure 4-4, each router is a peer to each other router. All rings are logically bridged to all other rings. The actual physical topology is less important than the logical topology. In Figure 4-4, the same logical topology can exist even if there are no physical connections between the access routers.

4-4 Cisco CCIE Fundamentals: Network Design

Explorer Packets and Propagation

Figure 4-4 Typical fully meshed (flat) topology.

Token

Ring 10

Virtual ring

Token

Token

Ring 20

Ring 60

Token

Token

Ring 30

Ring 50

 

Token

Ring 40

Explorer Packets and Propagation

Once you build a network of ring and bridge combinations, you must have a method for the end stations to find other end stations in the network.

An IBM bridge uses a system of explorer packet marking to propagate routing information through an SRB internetwork. The explorer packet is produced by the source end station and is marked (updated) by each bridge that it traverses. The marked field is called the Routing Information Field (RIF). Two important transactions occur in the explorer packet handling exchange: the transmission of the explorer packet and the reply by the end station to the explorer packets that it receives.

In this environment, the source end stations must know the Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC) address of the destination end stations. Once the MAC address is understood, the source end station produces an explorer packet.

The source-route bridge updates the explorer packet to include its bridge-ring combination in the explorer packet’s RIF in the MAC frame. By accumulating this information, the explorer packet gathers a hop-by-hop description of a path through the SRB network. In addition, the bridge forwards the explorer to each destination ring it encounters, therefore creating a complete topological map for each end station trying to find its way through the network.

Explorer Packet Types

There are three types of explorer packets: local explorer packets, spanning explorer packets, and all-routes explorer packets. Note that all-routes explorer packets are also known as all-rings explorer packets, and spanning explorer packets are also known as single-route and limited-route explorer packets. Single router explorers are explorers that pass through a predetermined path constructed by a spanning tree algorithm in the bridge. A station should receive only one single router explorer from the network.

Designing SRB Internetworks 4-5

SRB Technology Overview and Implementation Issues

A local explorer packet is generated by some end systems (either NetBIOS or SNA) to find a host connected to the local ring. After this event has occurred without finding a local host, the end station produces either a spanning explorer or an all-routes explorer packet. This behavior depends on the type of end station. SNA end stations generally produce an all-routes explorer packet. NetBIOS end stations produce a spanning explorer packet.

Note As of Cisco IOS Software Release 10.2, auto spanning tree (AST) for SRB is supported. The implementation of AST in Cisco IOS Software Release10.2 is based on the IEEE 802.1 standard and is fully compatible with IBM PC bridging. New global and interface configuration commands are required to configure a router for AST. Once configured, AST can be enabled and disabled through LAN Network Manager (LNM). The following discussion of spanning tree explorer packets applies to the manual spanning tree functionality available in software releases prior to Cisco IOS Software Release 10.2.

To pass a spanning explorer packet on a router, the configuration for the router’s Token Ring interface must have the source-bridge spanning interface configuration command for the specific ring. If this interface command is not included, spanning explorer packets are discarded.

In contrast, an all-routes explorer packet can find any valid SRB ring. No specific router configuration other than specification of SRB is required to pass all-routes explorer packets.

Explorer packet processing works as illustrated in Figure 4-5. If End station X sends an all-routes explorer packet, Bridge B1 and Bridge B2 both forward the explorer packet. End station Y receives two all-routes explorer packets in this configuration. End station Y responds to each of the all-routes explorer packets by sending a directed, nonbroadcast packet. In the example illustrated in Figure 4-5, four packets are generated:

Two all-routes explorer packets inbound (to End station Y)

Two nonbroadcast packets outbound (from End station Y)

Figure 4-5 Explorer packet processing (all-routes broadcast).

Bridge B1

All-routes explorer packet sent by End station X

 

 

 

 

Token

Token

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ring 1

Ring 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

End station X

 

End station Y

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Directed, nonbroadcast packet

 

 

 

 

Bridge B2

sent by End station Y

Figure 4-6 illustrates an end station sending a spanning explorer packet. Bridge B1 and Bridge B2 make their respective forwarding decisions based on whether or not spanning is enabled. Assume Bridge B1 has spanning enabled and Bridge B2 does not have spanning enabled. Bridge B1 forwards the spanning explorer packet, and Bridge B2 does not. End station Y receives one spanning explorer packet and returns an all-routes explorer packet for each single route received. As before, Bridge B1 and Bridge B2 forward the all-routes explorer packet. In this example, the following packets are generated:

One spanning explorer packet inbound (to End station Y)

Two all-routes explorer packets outbound (to End station X)

4-6 Cisco CCIE Fundamentals: Network Design

Explorer Packets and Propagation

Figure 4-6 Explorer packet processing (spanning explorer broadcast).

Bridge B1

Spanning explorer packet sent by End station X

 

 

 

 

Token

Token

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ring 1

Ring 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

End station X

 

End station Y

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

All-routes explorer packet

 

 

 

 

Bridge B2

sent by End station Y

If spanning were enabled on Bridge B2, it would also forward the spanning explorer packet. The following packets would be generated:

Two spanning explorer packets inbound (to End station Y)

Four all-routes explorer packets outbound (to End station X)

Note In general, there should be only a single path through the network for spanning explorer packets. If redundancy is required, a trade-off should be made between automatic redundancy and tolerance for additional explorer packet traffic. When redundancy is required, AST should be used.

Redundancy can be achieved in many instances within the router-based cloud as a result of encapsulation in either TCP or IP, the latter called Fast Sequenced Transport (FST). To contrast redundancy provided by a pure SRB environment and an internetwork that combines routing capabilities with SRBs, consider the networks illustrated in Figure 4-7, Figure 4-8, and Figure 4-9. Figure 4-7 illustrates a pure bridged network. Figure 4-8 and Figure 4-9 illustrate an SRB network running over routers.

Designing SRB Internetworks 4-7

SRB Technology Overview and Implementation Issues

Figure 4-7 Redundancy in a pure SRB network.

 

Token

 

Ring 30

Bridge B2

Bridge B1

Split Bridge B2

Split Bridge B1

over serial link

over serial link

Bridge B2

Bridge B1

 

 

 

 

Token

Token

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ring 10

Ring 20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Client

Server

 

 

 

 

Bridge B3

Bridge B3

Split Bridge B3 over serial link

In Figure 4-7, there are two SRB paths between Token Ring 10 and Token Ring 20:

Token Ring 10 to split Bridge B3 to Token Ring 20

Token Ring 10 to split Bridge B2 to Token Ring 30 to split Bridge B1 to Token Ring 20

If spanning is enabled on both paths, the traffic resulting from a spanning explorer broadcast from the server is as follows:

Two spanning explorer packets inbound (to the server)

Four all-routes explorer packets outbound (to the client)

In router-based networks, the same type of redundancy is achieved in a different, more efficient manner, as illustrated in Figure 4-8 and Figure 4-9.

Figure 4-8 Redundancy in a router-based SRB network (physical router connectivity).

Token

Ring 30

Router B

Router A

Router C

Token

Token

Ring 10

Ring 20

Client

Server

4-8 Cisco CCIE Fundamentals: Network Design