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Appendix 2

Tips for Writing an Essay

What is an essay?

An essay is a piece of writing done by students at different levels of education. An essay is longer than a composition, more serious and includes hundreds or even thousands of words.

An essay is made up of a group of paragraphs about one subject which are organized into three parts:

  1. A introductory paragraph – Introduction

  2. Body paragraphs – Main Part

  3. A concluding paragraph – Conclusion

How to organize an essay?

The Introductory Paragraph – Introduction

This paragraph consists of two parts: a few general statements about your subject to attract your reader’s attention and a thesis statement to state the specific subdivision of your topic and/or the “plan” of your paper. The thesis statement (or main idea) should be developed in the body paragraphs.

The Body Paragraphs – Main Part

The body consists of two or more paragraphs. The number of paragraphs in the body depends on the number of ideas or points you want to discuss. Each paragraph develops the subdivision of your topic and is related to your thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The body is the longest part of your essay.

You can organize the paragraphs by chronological order, logical division of ideas, and comparison/contrast, etc.

The Concluding Paragraph – Conclusion

This paragraph comes at the end of the essay. It restates your thesis statement in the introduction and summarizes the main points made in the body. In fact, the concluding paragraph acts as a reminder to the reader and is also the place to add some personal views.

Hints for Success

  • Use normal word order.

  • Write sentences of 12-25 words.

  • Use parallel structure.

  • To achieve coherence and ensure a smooth forward movement from one piece of information to the next use transitions: conjunctions and linking words.

  • Build each paragraph around a central idea. This idea is expressed in a topic sentence – often the first sentence of the paragraph – and developed in supporting sentences.

  • Check your essay carefully for correct spelling, good style, clear thesis and strong supporting details.

Appendix 3

The Group Charter Samples

Appendix 4

Tips for Making a Presentation

What is a presentation?

A presentation is an academic skill which is usually designed to inform the audience on the subject, or to persuade the listeners, or to entertain. Frequently it will be a mixture of some or all of these.

Making the presentation includes two stages:

  1. Preparation for the presentation.

  2. Delivery of the presentation.


Preparation for the presentation

A successful presentation must be prepared carefully and in an intelligent way. When preparing for a presentation it is important to think about:

  • purpose,

  • audience,

  • structure,

  • communication aids.


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