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5. Artificial Intelligence

Expert systems are a class of computer programs that can advise, analyze, design, explain, explore, forecast, from concepts, identify, interpret, justify, learn, manage, monitor, plan, present, retrieve, schedule, test and tutor. Some of these programs have achieved expert levels of performance on the problems for which they were designed.

Expert systems are usually developed with the help of human experts who solve specific problems and reveal their thought processes as they proceed, if this process of protocol analysis is successful, the computer program based on this analysis will be able to solve the narrowly defined problems as well as an expert,

Experts typically solve problems that are unstructured and ill - defined, usually in a setting that involves diagnosis or planning. They cope with the lack of structure by employing heuristics, w'hich are tire rules of thumb that people use to solve problems when a lack of time or understanding prevents an analysis of all the parameters involved. Likewise, expert systems employ programmed heuristics to solve problems.

Experts engage in several different problems - solving activities: identify the problem, process data, generate questions, collect information, establish hypothesis, explore and refine, ask general questions, and make a decision.

Expert systems, like human experts can have both deep and surface representations of knowledge. Deep representations arc causal models, categories abstractions and analogies. In such cases, we try to represent an understanding of structure and function. Surface representations are often empirical associations. With surface representations, all the system knows is that an empirical association exists; it is unable to explain why, beyond repeating the association. Systems that use knowledge represented in different forms have been termed multilevel systems.

Work is just beginning in building such multilevel systems, and they will be a major research topic for this decade. Work needs to be done in studying

and representing in a general way the different problem - solving activities an expert does. When you build expert systems, you realize that power behind them is that they provide a regimen (керування): for experts to ciystallize and codify their knowledge and in the knowledge lies the power.

6. Digit that Means Nothing

The introduction of the zero to the European mathematics was an essential contribution to modem teclmological development. The concept of symbolically representing "nothing" in a numerical system is considered to be one of man's greatest intellectual achievements.

Various peoples throughout the world have used systems of counting without having the zero. The classical Greeks used different letters of their alphabet to denote numbers from 1 to 10 and each of the multiples of 10. Any number not represented by a single letter symbol was expressed by the sum of flic values of several symbols. For example, the number 238 was indicated by writing the letter symbols for 200, 30 and 8 adjacent to each other.

The Romans used fewer symbols to represent a more limited number of integers such as 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and employed the additive principle to a greater degree. Thus, in writing the number 238 nine individual symbols were required: CCXXXVIII.

The zero of modern civilization had its origin in India about 500 A.D. By 800 A.D, its use had been introduced to Baghdad, from where it spread throughout the Moslem world. The zero, together with the rest of our "Arabic" numbers was known in Europe by the year of 1000 A.D., but because of the strong tradition of Roman numbers, there was considerable resistance to its adoption. The zero became generally used in Western Europe only in the XIV century.

Including the Hindu the concept of the zero with its idea of positional value appears to have been independently arrived at in three great cultures which were widely separated in space and time. About 500 B.C. the Babylonians began to use a symbol to represent a vacant space in their positional value numbers. However, before the idea could be disseminated to other areas, its use apparently died out about 2000 years ago along with the culture that gave it birth.

The Mayas of Central America began using the zero about the beginning of the Christian era. They have been in possession of the zero for about a thousand years longer than the Spaniards, and in general, the Mayas were more advanced in many aspects of mathematics than their conquerors, Modern civilization derives incalculable practical and theoretical benefits from the use of zero.