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23. Parallel construction

A syntactical stylistic device. The necessary condition in parallel constructions is identical, or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence.

E.g.: There were…, real silver spoons to stir the tea with, and real china cups to drink it out of, and plates of the same to hold the cakes and toast in.’’ (DICKENS)

24. parenthesis - (Gr. parentithenai ‘to put in beside’, ‘to insert’) – вводное слово или предложение

An explanatory or qualifying sentence, phrase, or word, which is inserted in a longer passage without being grammatically connected with it, usually marked off by brackets, dashes, or commas.

E.g.: ''There was the cheval-glass, that miracle of art, in which he could just see his own wondering head, and the reflection of Dolly (queerly distorted, and as if up in the ceiling), plumping and patting the pillows of the bed. ( Thackeray)

25. periphrasis - перифраза, перифраз

A figure of speech; the use of a longer phrasing with descriptive epithets, abstract general terms, etc., in place of a possible shorter and plainer form of expression, aimed at representing the author’s idea in a roundabout way.

E.g.: “I understand you are poor, and wish to earn money by nursing the little boy, my son, who has been so prematurely deprived of what can never be replaced” (his mother). (DICKENS)

26. personification – олицетворение

A figure of speech whereby an inanimate object or idea is given human characteristics. E.g.:

O, sleep, o gentle sleep,

Nature’s soft nurse, how have I frighted thee,

That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down,

And steep my senses in forgetfulness?

(SHAKESPEARE, KING HENRY IV, Part 2)

27. repetition (L. repetitio) – повторение

A reiteration of the same word or phrase with the view of expressiveness; a syntactic stylistic device.

E.g.: ''Fog everywhere. Fog up the river, where it flows among green aits and meadows; fog down the river, where it rolls defiled among the tiers of shipping, and the waterside pollutions of a great (and dirty) city. Fog on the Essex marshes, fog on the Kentish heights.

28. Rhetorical question

is a syntactical stylistic device the essence of which consisits in reshaping the grammatical meaning of the interrogative sentence. The question is no longer a question but a statement expressed in the form of an interrogative sentence.

E.g.: Is there not blood enough upon your penal code, that more must be poured forth to ascend to Heaven and testify against you? (BYRON)

29. simile - сравнение

A comparison in which two objects belonging to quite different classes are compared. E.g.:

Lady Henry, looking like a bird of paradise that had been out all night in the rain, flitted out of the room. (O. WILDE)

The formal elements of a simile are: 1) a pair of objects

2) a connective (like, as, as if, as though, such as, etc.) Not only conjunctions and adverbs but notional words (nouns, verbs, prepositional phrases) as well as affixes (suffixes - -wise, -like) and comma – the substitute of a conjunction – can have the function of a connective in a simile; e.g.: She seemed nothing more than a doll. (A.HUXLEY). “…with ape-like fury he was trampling his victim under foot”. (STEVENSON)

30. synecdoche (Gr. synekdoche) – синекдоха

A figure of speech, alike to metonymy, by which a part is put for the whole, or the whole for a part, or an individual for a class, or an indeffinite number for a definite one, or singular for plural.

31. zeugma (Gr. 'yoke') – зевгма

Use of a word in the same grammatical relation to two adjacent words in the context, one metaphorical and the other literal in sense.

E.g.: ''And the boys took their places and their books.'' (DICKENS)

''Medora took heart, a cheap hall bedroom, and two art lessons a week from professor Angelini.'' (O. HENRY)

''The one martyr who might, perhaps, have paid him a visit and a fee did not show herself.'' (A. BENNET)

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