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3. Grammatical categories of the Noun in Old English, Middle English and New English periods.

Old English:

Category of gender: 3 (masculine, feminine, neuter)

Category of number: 2 (singular, plural)

Category of case: 4 (Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative)

Types of declension: strong, weak, root, minor.

Middle English:

Category of gender: -

Category of number: 2 (singular, plural)

Category of case: 2 (Nominative, Genitive)

Types of declension: strong, weak.

New English:

two numbers: singular and plural

two case forms: the common case and the genitive case

three genders: masculine, feminine, neuter

4. Grammatical categories of the Verb in Old English, Middle English and New English periods.

Old English:

Syntheticall

3 types: strong, weak, minor.

Categories:

- number: 2

- person: 3

- mood: indicative (real), subjunctive (desire, condition, obligation, doubt), imperative (order, request).

Tense: past, present.

Non-finite:

Indicative: case (Nominative, Dative)

Participle I:

- number: 2

- person: 3

- declension – like strong adjectives, active meaning, simultaneous.

Participle II:

- declension: 2

- gender: 3

Middle English:

Analitical

3 types: strong, weak, minor.

Categories:

- number: 2

- person: 3

- mood: indicative (real), subjunctive (desire, condition, obligation, doubt), imperative (order, request).

Tense: past, present., future (shall/will), Past Perfect (have to + Participle II), gerund.

Non-finite:

Indicative:

  • case: -

  • acquire “to”

Participle I:

- number: 2

- gender: -

- declension: -

- active meaning, expressive process.

Participle II:

- declension: -

- gender: -

New English:

Grammatical categories:

person: 1st, 2nd ,3rd

number: Singular, Plural

tense: present, past, future

aspect (вид): simple, progressive, perfect, perfect-progressive

voice (стан): active, passive

mood: indicative, Imperative, subjunctive

The Non-finite Forms of the Verb:

The Participle (Present - I, Past - II)

The Gerund

The Infinitive

  1. Main historical events of Old English and Middle English periods and their linguistic consequences.

Linguistic consequences.

Main historical events of Old English and Middle English periods and their linguistic consequences.

Early 5th century.-First Germanic tribes arrive in England.

600 - Christianity introduced among Anglo-Saxons

876 - Three Danish kings attack Wessex

1066 - English becomes the language of the lower classes (peasants and slaves). Norman French becomes the language of the court and propertied classes.

1204 The English kings lose the duchy of Normandy to French kings. England is now the only home of the Norman English.

1205 First book in English appears since the conquest.

1337 Start of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.

1362 English becomes official language of the law courts. More and more authors are writing in English.

1380 The London dialect, for the first time, begins to be recognized as the "Standard", or variety of English taken as the norm, for all England.

1474 William Caxton brings a printing press to England from Germany. Publishes the first printed book in England.

the Scandinavian element in the London dialect and Standard English was brought about by the changing linguistic situation in England: the mixture of the dialects and the growing linguistic unification.

(Norman)The most important consequence of Norman domination in Britain is to be seen in the wide use of the French language in many spheres of life. For almost three hundred years French was the official language of administration: it was the language of the king’s court, the church, the army and others. The intellectual life, literature and education were in the hands of French-speaking people. For all that, England never stopped being an English-speaking country.

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