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5. Metaphorical group of stylistic devices. Mechanism of metaphoric transfer of name. Types of metaphor.

Metaphor – transposition of a name based on similarity/ likeness of two objects.

Types of metaphor:

Semantic types:

Genuine or original (created by speakers): The wind was a torrent of darkness among the trees.

Trite or dead (are fixed in the dictionary): To burn with desire, floods of tears;

Structural types:

Simple (elementary) consist of single words, or compound words, or phrases. The good book is the best of friends.

Sustained/extended metaphors appear in cases when a word which has been used metaphorically makes other words of the sentence also realize their metaphoric meanings. Blondes, wars, famines - they all arrived on the same train. They unpacked together. They stayed at the same hotel...

Functional types:

Nominative is technical device of nomination, when a new notion is named by means of the old vocabulary. a leg of the table, an arm of the clock

Cognitive – when an object obtains a quality which is typical of another object. One more day has died.

Figurative / imaginative: Patricia’s eyes were pools of still water.

Antonomasia and Allegory

Antonomasia (Allegory) - identification of human beings with things which surround them (throughout the whole text);

1. the use of a proper name for a common noun. He is the Napoleon of crime.

2.the use of common nouns as proper names - speaking / token / talking names: Mr. Murdstone; Mrs. Snake; Miss Toady

Allegory = antonomasia within the whole text.

1. proverbs/sayings: Jack of all trades and master of none.

2. fables

3. fairy tales

Personification - ascribing human behaviour and thoughts to inanimate objects.

HOW DOES IT DIFFER FROM ANTONOMASIA?

She had been asleep, always, and now life was thundering imperatively at all her doors.

Lie is a strange creature, and a very mean one.

EPITHET - interaction of logical and emotive meanings which produce a subjective evaluation. The iron hate deep in his soul pushed him on. The iron gate opened with a loud squeak.

  1. Metonymical group. Syntactic and semantic difference between metonymy and metaphor.

Metonymical group: the transfer of the meaning on the basis of contiguity/nearness of two objects, on the real association of the object of nomination with the object whose name is transferred.

Metonymy can be lexical or contextual transfer of meaning.

Synechdoche - naming the whole object by mentioning part of it: the school (pupils) went to the zoo. Periphrasis – the replacement of a direct name of a thing or phenomenon by the description of some quality of this thing or phenomenon: oil=black gold, Kyiv – the city of chestnuts. Euphemism - a replacement of and unpleasantly sounding word or phrase.

Types of euphemism:

1. religious: God – Lord, Goodness, Heaven, Almight; Devil - the dickens, the deuce, Old Nick, Gentleman

2. moral: to die = to join the majority, to pass away, to breathe one's last, to go West; dead = late, deceased, departed

3. medical: mental hospital = lunatic asylum, mentally challenged = idiot

4. political: relocation centres - concentration camps; incursion - invasion; anti-personnel weapons – bombs; conflict - war

Metonymy:

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