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5. Metaphorical group of stylistic devices. Mechanism of metaphoric transfer of name. Types of metaphor.

Metaphor – transposition of a name based on similarity/ likeness of two objects.

Types of metaphor:

Semantic types:

Genuine or original (created by speakers): The wind was a torrent of darkness among the trees.

Trite or dead (are fixed in the dictionary): To burn with desire, floods of tears;

Structural types:

Simple (elementary) consist of single words, or compound words, or phrases. The good book is the best of friends.

Sustained/extended metaphors appear in cases when a word which has been used metaphorically makes other words of the sentence also realize their metaphoric meanings. Blondes, wars, famines - they all arrived on the same train. They unpacked together. They stayed at the same hotel...

Functional types:

Nominative is technical device of nomination, when a new notion is named by means of the old vocabulary. a leg of the table, an arm of the clock

Cognitive – when an object obtains a quality which is typical of another object. One more day has died.

Figurative / imaginative: Patricia’s eyes were pools of still water.

Antonomasia and Allegory

Antonomasia (Allegory) - identification of human beings with things which surround them (throughout the whole text);

1. the use of a proper name for a common noun. He is the Napoleon of crime.

2.the use of common nouns as proper names - speaking / token / talking names: Mr. Murdstone; Mrs. Snake; Miss Toady

Allegory = antonomasia within the whole text.

1. proverbs/sayings: Jack of all trades and master of none.

2. fables

3. fairy tales

Personification - ascribing human behaviour and thoughts to inanimate objects.


She had been asleep, always, and now life was thundering imperatively at all her doors.

Lie is a strange creature, and a very mean one.

EPITHET - interaction of logical and emotive meanings which produce a subjective evaluation. The iron hate deep in his soul pushed him on. The iron gate opened with a loud squeak.

  1. Metonymical group. Syntactic and semantic difference between metonymy and metaphor.

Metonymical group: the transfer of the meaning on the basis of contiguity/nearness of two objects, on the real association of the object of nomination with the object whose name is transferred.

Metonymy can be lexical or contextual transfer of meaning.

Synechdoche - naming the whole object by mentioning part of it: the school (pupils) went to the zoo. Periphrasis – the replacement of a direct name of a thing or phenomenon by the description of some quality of this thing or phenomenon: oil=black gold, Kyiv – the city of chestnuts. Euphemism - a replacement of and unpleasantly sounding word or phrase.

Types of euphemism:

1. religious: God – Lord, Goodness, Heaven, Almight; Devil - the dickens, the deuce, Old Nick, Gentleman

2. moral: to die = to join the majority, to pass away, to breathe one's last, to go West; dead = late, deceased, departed

3. medical: mental hospital = lunatic asylum, mentally challenged = idiot

4. political: relocation centres - concentration camps; incursion - invasion; anti-personnel weapons – bombs; conflict - war


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