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Лексикологія

1. Etymological structure of the English vocabulary. Native and borrowed words, types of borrowings.

By a borrowing or loan-word we mean a word which came into the vocabulary of one language from another and was assimilated by the new language.

Native words:

Take up only one-third of English vocabulary , native word stock comprises: Indo-European words (father, tree, to eat), Anglo-Saxon elements(river, to live, to see), Celtic elements (gler, bard, cradle)

Characteristics:

Meaning – vital concepts, qualities, natural phenomena, formal words

Sound form – monosyllable, stressed on the 1-st syllable

Borrowed words, types of borrowings:

Other words in English language are borrowed words. There are such types of borrowings:

Latin borrowings.

The 1st с.В. С. cherry (Lat. cerasum), pear (Lat. pirum), plum (Lat. prunus).

7th c. A. D This century was significant for the christianisation of England. Latin was the official language of the Christian church, and consequently the spread of Christianity was accompanied by a new period of Latin borrowings. E. g. priest (Lai. presbyter), monk (Lat. monachus), candle (Lai. candela).

Renaissance Period - moderate, intelligent, permanent, to elect, to create.

The Greek borrowings.

GREEK The Greek words are recognized by their specific spelling (ch, ph, ps, rh), by the suffixes - ist, -ics, -ism, -id, -ize, -old, -osis, and ~y between consonants.

After the Renaissance Greek words came as terms for various fields of science, such as:

a) literature and art — poet, rhythm,

b) lexicology — lexicology, antonym

c) philosophy and mathematics-basis, category; diagram;

d) botany - balsam, cactus;

e) physics- dynamic, hydraulic;

j) medicine - diagnosis, diaphragm.

Some proper names of Greek origin got to be quite popular in English: Catherine, George, Margaret, Sophia, Irene, Alexander, etc. There are also Greek prefixes: a-, an-: aseptic, anarchy;anti-, ant-: antidote, Antarctic; di-, dis-: dilemma, disyllabic, and others.

2. Latin and French borrowings in Modern English, their periodization and recognition.

Among words of Romanic origin borrowed from Latin during the period when the British Isles were a part of the Roman Empire, there are such words as: street, port, wall etc. Many Latin and Greek words came into English during the Adoption of Christianity in the 6-th century. These borrowings are usually called classical borrowings. Here belong Latin words: alter, cross, dean.

Latin borrowings: they are divided into 3 periods:

1) 5 century, words are connected with trade (pound, kitchen, wall, port);

2) The time of Christianity, words are connected with religion (alter, cross, dean; Greek words: church, angel, devil, monk, nun, candle; + educational terms scholar, magister

3) Time of renaissance, words were borrowed after great vowel shift (17 century) (item, superior, zoology, memorandum, vice versa, AM, PM).

Latin and Greek borrowings appeared in English during the Middle English period due to the Great Revival of Learning. These are mostly scientific words because Latin was the language of science at the time: Butter, cheese, kitchen, church, dish, street, wine, city, master, paper

Classical borrowings continue to appear in Modern English as well. Mostly they are words formed with the help of Latin and Greek morphemes. There are quite a lot of them in medicine (appendicitis, aspirin), in chemistry (acid, valency, alkali), in technique (engine, antenna, biplane, airdrome), in politics (socialism, militarism), names of sciences (zoology, physics)

The largest group of borrowings is French borrowings. Most of them came into English during the Norman Conquest. French influenced not only the vocabulary of English but also its spelling, because French scribes wrote documents as the local population was mainly illiterate, and the ruling class was French.

Latin and French borrowings in Modern English, their periodization and recognition.

French continues to be the largest single source of new words outside of very specialized vocabulary domains (scientific/technical vocabulary, still dominated by classical borrowings).

Examples:

Government: parliament, power, government, country, crown

Religion: miracle, charity, saint, pardon

Household Relationships: uncle, aunt, nephew, cousin, father, mother, brother, sister

military affairs: army, war, banner, soldier, battle;

jury: advocate, petition, inquest, sentence, barrister;

fashion: luxury, coat, collar, lace, pleat, embroidery;

jewelry: topaz, emerald, ruby, pearl ;

food and cooking: lunch, dinner, appetite, to roast, to stew.

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